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To ?   14 June [1860]


He has sent the list of seeds to J. H. Hooker at Kew. There has been no agreement about a French edition [of Origin]. There is little chance of his being at the BAAS meeting at Oxford.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  14 June [1860]
Classmark:  University of South Carolina Libraries, Hollings Special Collections Library (C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of Darwin and Darwiniana)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832F

To J. D. Hooker   17 June [1860]


Has reread JDH’s paper ["On the functions of the rostellum of Listera ovata", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 68 (EH 88206051)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1571

To W. H. Miller   [after 5 June 1860]


Discusses measurements of bees’ cells. Describes modification in structure of Melipona hive. Notes importance of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  [after 5 June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2391

To William Hallowes Miller   5 June [1860]


Discusses measurements of bees’ cells.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  5 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2468

To Charles Lyell   1 [June 1860]


Comments on review of Origin by Andrew Murray [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91] and views of William Hopkins on Origin ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life" Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90]. The attacks will tell heavily.

Mentions Blyth’s failure to receive appointment as naturalist to China expedition of 1860.

Encloses letter from Asa Gray.

Discusses gestation period in domesticated dogs.

Comments on hybrid fertility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.214)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2820

To George Rolleston   1 June [1860]


Thanks for invitation [to stay with GR at Oxford], but his poor state of health requires him to stay in private lodgings.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Rolleston
Date:  1 June [1860]
Classmark:  Wellcome Collection (MS.6119/1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2820A

To J. D. Hooker   5 June [1860]



CD’s response to criticism of natural selection. Exasperated at not being understood. He tries to narrow the gap between himself and JDH.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 60
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2821

To Charles Lyell   6 June [1860]


Mentions Etty’s illness.

A "coarsely contemptuous" review of Origin by Samuel Haughton ["On the form of the cells made by various wasps and by the honey bee; with an appendix on the origin of species", Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Dublin 3 (1860): 128–40].

Comments on reception of Malthus’ ideas.

Says William Hopkins does not understand him.

Discusses problem of term "natural selection".

J. A. Lowell’s review of Origin [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Relationship between instinct and structure.

Discusses blindness of cave animals.

The fallacy of Andrew Murray and others; the slight importance of climate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  6 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.215)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2822

To George Rolleston   6 June [1860]


CD’s plans are uncertain because of his daughter’s [Henrietta Darwin] fever.

If GR would kindly reserve rooms for CD near college, CD will write before the meeting [of British Association at Oxford] if he is prevented from coming.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Rolleston
Date:  6 June [1860]
Classmark:  Wellcome Collection (MS.6119/)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2822A

To J. D. Hooker   7 June [1860]



Floral anatomy of Goodeniaceae: although flowers seem to fertilise themselves by pistil moving to anther, CD shows that insect agency is necessary. Wants JDH to check his interpretation of stigmatic surface.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 61
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2823

To John Murray   7 June [1860]


Asks how Origin [2d ed.] is selling and whether a new edition is likely to be wanted "soon, ever, or never". Asks partly from curiosity, partly because of a break in his work, and the answer will decide what his next job will be.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  7 June [1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 f. 79)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2824

To Asa Gray   8 June [1860]


Discusses recent reviews of Origin and has made a note on Owen’s [see 2737].

Has become interested in the floral structures of orchids.

Notes his recent observations on Primula; believes he has found male and female forms.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  8 June [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (40)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2825

From J. D. Hooker   8 June 1860



Glad to hear good news of Etty [Henrietta Darwin].

CD’s observations on Scaevola are capital. The indusium collects the pollen and is the homologue of the pollen-collecting hairs of Campanula. A boat-shaped organ forms a second indusium, the inside base of which forms the stigmatic surface. The latter later protrudes as horns, forming the stigma.

Describes W. H. Harvey’s scientific career and thinks his letter interesting. Agrees with Harvey that the primary agency of natural selection is as great a mystery as ever. [Response to 2823.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 June 1860
Classmark:  DAR 157a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2825A

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [4–5 June 1860]


Wants to hear from readers about the way in which the bee-orchid (Ophrys apifera) is fertilised. He has always found it to be self-fertilised but greatly doubts that the flowers of any plant are fertilised for generations by their own pollen. The bee-orchid has sticky glands, which would make it adapted for fertilisation by insects; this makes him want to hear what happens to its pollen-masses in places he has not observed.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [4 or 5] June 1860
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 9 June 1860, p. 528
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2826

To Emma Gärtner   9 June [1860]


Has long venerated her father [Carl F. von Gärtner]. Looks forward to reading his life. CD will do everything he can to make Gärtner’s name more generally known.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Emma Gärtner
Date:  9 June [1860]
Classmark:  Duke University, Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library (RL.10387)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2827

To Henry Tibbats Stainton   11 June [1860]


On what kind of moth have pollen-masses of orchids been found cohering? Will ask Mr Parfitt if he is certain he recognised pollen-masses of bee orchid. CD thinks green masses were those of true Orchis.

[In P.S., having received a letter on subject from HTS responding to same query published in Gard. Chron. 9 June 1860:] It is extremely curious that the same moth has been found with pollen-masses in two parts of England.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Tibbats Stainton
Date:  11 June [1860]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (General Special Collections MSS DAR 17)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2829

To J. D. Hooker   12 [June 1860]



Progress of [Thomas?] Thomson and G. H. K. Thwaites on accepting mutability.

Bee orchid pollination.

JDH has written to CD on homologies of stigma in Goodeniaceae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12 [June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 62
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2830

To John Higgins   13 June [1860]


Discusses possible purchase of land.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  13 June [1860]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/3/3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2831

To Charles Lyell   14 [June 1860]


Mentions letters from Edward Blyth and William Hopkins.

Sees little in review of Origin by J. A. Lowell [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Sees only one sentence approaching natural selection in paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen. Emphasises importance of natural selection.

Comments on Agassiz’s view of species.

Cites account of flint tools in travel book by F. P. Wrangell [Narrative of an expedition to the Polar Sea (1840)]. Mentions Eskimo tools.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.216)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832

From Charles Lyell   15 June 1860


Rejects CD’s comparison of natural selection with the architect of a building. The architect who plans and oversees construction should not be confused in his function with the wisest breeder. That would be to deify natural selection.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 June 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VI, pp. 108–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832A
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