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To Asa Gray   21 February [1858]

Summary

Asks whether botanists tend to record varieties more carefully in large genera or small genera.

Wants information on the ranges of varieties of a species compared to the range of the species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  21 Feb [1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (21)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2218

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letters to J.  D. Hooker, [29 April 1857] and [2 May 1857] ). CD …

To Asa Gray   [after 15 March 1857]

Summary

Urges AG to generalise from his observations on the flora of the northern U. S.

Expected to find separation of sexes in trees because he believes all living beings require an occasional cross, and none is perpetually self-fertilising. The multitude of flowers of a tree would be an obstacle to cross-fertilisation unless the sexes tended to be separate.

The Leguminosae are CD’s greatest opposers; he cannot find that garden varieties ever cross. Could AG inquire of intelligent nurserymen on the subject?

Thanks AG for information on protean genera; much wants to know whether their great variability is due to their conditions of existence or is innate in them at all times and places.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  [After 15 Mar 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2060

Matches: 2 hits

  • … received it in his letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 March [1857] . Letter from Asa Gray, 16  …
  • J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and 10 December [1856] . CD refers to his anecdote about Louis Agassiz related in the letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . …

To Asa Gray   18 June [1857]

Summary

Thanks for AG’s remarks on disjoined species. CD’s notions are based on belief that disjoined species have suffered much extinction, which is the common cause of small genera and disjoined ranges.

Discusses out-crossing in plants.

Has failed to meet with a detailed account of regular and normal impregnation in the bud. Podostemon, Subularia, and underwater Leguminosae are the strongest cases against him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  18 June [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2109

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . J.  D. Hooker 1854. Steudel 1840–1. See letter to …

From Asa Gray   7 July 1857

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Summary

Believes, with CD, that extinction may be an important factor in explaining plant distributions, but sees no reason why the several species of a genus must ever have had a common or continuous area. "Convince me of that, or show me any good grounds for it … and I think you would carry me a good way with you". It is just such people as AG that CD has to satisfy and convince.

Feels that the crossing of individuals is important in repressing variation and perhaps in perpetuating the species, but instances some plants in which it cannot, apparently, take place.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2120

Matches: 1 hit

  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] . J.  D. Hooker and Thomson 1855. Jean Louis …

To Asa Gray   5 September [1857]

Summary

Encloses an abstract of his ideas on natural selection and the principle of divergence; the "means by which nature makes her species".

Discusses varieties and close species in large and small genera, finding some data from AG in conflict with his expectations.

Has been observing the action of bees in fertilising kidney beans and Lobelia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  5 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (48)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2136

Matches: 1 hit

  • … seeds from Kew (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 14 [November 1857] ). The enclosure up to and …

From Asa Gray   16 February 1857

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Summary

Discusses the ranges of alpine species in U. S. and considers the possible migration routes of such species from Europe.

Lists those U. S. genera which he considers protean and describes the U. S. character of some genera which are protean in Europe.

Describes how he distinguishes introduced and aboriginal stocks of the same species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb 1857
Classmark:  DAR 165: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2053

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] and n.  6. See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …

From Asa Gray   22 May 1855

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Summary

Has filled up CD’s paper [see 1674].

Distribution and relationships of alpine flora in U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 May 1855
Classmark:  DAR 106: D1–D2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1685

Matches: 1 hit

  • … after the third part of volume two. J.  D. Hooker 1857 and 1862. See letter to Asa Gray, …

To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 1 hit

  • … letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …

To Asa Gray   29 November [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for his criticisms of CD’s views; finds it difficult to avoid using the term "natural selection" as an agent.

Discusses crossing in Fumaria and barnacles.

Has received a naturally crossed kidney bean in which the seed-coat has been affected by the pollen of the fertilising plant.

Finds the rule of large genera having most varieties holds good and regards it as most important for his "principle of divergence".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  29 Nov [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2176

Matches: 1 hit

  • J.  D. Hooker, 25 September [1853] . CD may have spoken to John Phillips at the meeting of the Philosophical Club of the Royal Society on 19 November 1857  …

To Asa Gray   11 August [1858]

Summary

Species migration since the Pliocene. Effect of the glacial epoch. Present geographical distribution, especially similarities of mountain floras, explained by such migration; mountain summits as remnants of a once continuous flora and fauna.

Cross-fertilisation in Fumariaceae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  11 Aug [1858]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (42 and 9a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2321

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1857 . For Gray’s use of the information given in this letter, see letter to J.  D. Hooker, …

To Asa Gray   20 July [1857]

Summary

Believes species have arisen, like domestic varieties, with much extinction, and that there are no such things as independently created species. Explains why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants.

Discusses fertilisation in the bud and the insect pollination of papilionaceous flowers. His theory explains why, despite the risk of injury, cross-fertilisation is usual in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even in hermaphrodites.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2125

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1857 . CD had asked Joseph Dalton Hooker to read and comment on the draft of his chapter on geographical distribution (see letters to J.  D. …

To Asa Gray   19 April [1865]

Summary

Congratulates AG on the "grand news of Richmond".

Still interested in dimorphism and would welcome new cases.

Working on Variation

and correcting proofs of Climbing plants.

Would like seed of AG’s dimorphic Plantago.

Cannot understand how the wind could fertilise reciprocally dimorphic flowers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  19 Apr [1865]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (77)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4467

Matches: 1 hit

  • … See also ibid. , letter to J.  D.  Hooker, [21 March 1857] and n.  4. CD refers to Gray’s …

To Asa Gray   11 May [1863]

Summary

CD despairs when men like AG and Lyell consider themselves incapable of judging on change of species by descent.

Is confused over phyllotaxy.

Has been looking at Plantago lanceolata.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  11 May [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (59)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4153

Matches: 1 hit

  • J.  D.  Hooker, [9 May 1863] . CD had been reading Gray’s account of the arrangement of leaves in a spire in First lessons in Botany (A.  Gray 1857, …

To Asa Gray   22 January [1862]

Summary

Dimorphism: "new cases are tumbling in almost daily".

U. S. politics.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  22 Jan [1862]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (74)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3404

Matches: 1 hit

  • J.  D.  Hooker, [19 January 1862] and n.  10. This is a reference to the suggestion made by the historian Henry Thomas Buckle that there was a statistical relationship between the nature of a country’s climate and the progress of its civilisation ( Buckle 1857– …

From Asa Gray   21 June 1858

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Summary

Self-fertilisation in Fumariaceae.

[CD note on bees’ visiting some members of Fumariaceae.]

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 June 1858
Classmark:  DAR 76: B15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2288

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1857] ). CD investigated the subject experimentally in June 1858 (see n.  2, below). The note forms part of CD’s record of observations made in May and June on the fertilisation of these and similar leguminous flowers by bees. The letter is bound with CD’s other slips and notes on the topic in DAR 76. See also letter to J.  D. Hooker, …

To Asa Gray   20 April [1863]

Summary

Fears England and U. S. will drift into war; he and AG must "keep to Science".

Thanks for facts on Incas; regrets he has always avoided the case of man.

Has sent his Linum paper [Collected papers 2: 93–105].

Is it true that Ohio has legislated against marriage of cousins?

Can AG explain the invariable angles in phyllotaxy; are they the consequence of packing in the early bud?

Owen’s comments on heterogeny in the Athenæum [28 Mar 1863] have vexed W. B. Carpenter; CD has replied [Collected papers 2: 78–80].

Hopes AG will observe Gymnadenia; John Scott has been experimenting on its fertilisation.

Gives his observation on pollination of Cypripedium.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 Apr [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (51)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4110

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1857, pp.  72–5. There is an annotated copy of this work in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: 347). Falconer 1863a, p.  80. See letter to J.  D.  Hooker, …

To Asa Gray   4 July 1858

Summary

Believes that, in Dicentra, Fumaria and Corydalis, flower structures are related directly to visits from bees. Flower stigmas generally are placed in the path of bees.

Has received paper from Wallace on natural selection; has sent abstract of his notions, with Wallace’s paper, to Linnean Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  4 July 1858
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (20)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2302

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1857] . See letter to Charles Lyell, 18 [June 1858] . Alfred Russel Wallace had set out for New Guinea on 25 March 1858. He returned to the island of Ternate three or four months later ( Wallace 1905 ,1: 363–4). CD’s and Wallace’s papers had been read at a meeting of the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. See letter from J.  D. Hooker
Document type
letter (17)
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Addressee
Correspondent
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1855 (1)
1857 (8)
1858 (4)
1862 (1)
1863 (2)
1865 (1)