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To A. G. More   17 [July 1861]

Summary

Asks for specimen of Orchis latifolia and O. maculata. " … as some Botanists doubt whether they are distinct species it would be rather curious to show them insects distinguish them".

Found a lot of bee orchids. "All facts point clearly to self-fertilisation in this species; yet I cannot swallow the bitter pill."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  17 [July 1861]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3211

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To A. G. More   19 July [1861]

Summary

Thanks for Epipactis palustris. Doubts moths are the visitants. Thanks for experiment.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  19 July [1861]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3213

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To Asa Gray   12 March [1861]

Summary

Has received Chauncey Wright’s article.

Reports on favourable response to AG’s pamphlet.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  12 Mar [1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (52)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3087

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 2d edition, revised. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …
  • … of Orchids . In the second edition of 1877, however, CD cited Gray’s descriptions of …

To Daniel Oliver   11 September [1861]

Summary

Has put Drosera off while amusing himself with Primula and orchids.

Dionaea is prettily adapted to weight detection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  11 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 30, 66 (EH 88206013, EH 88206049)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3251

Matches: 2 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. …
  • … CD published a fuller account of this study in 1877, however, he had been able to examine …

To Daniel Oliver   1 May [1861]

Summary

Thanks W. H. Fitch for drawing for the Primula paper. Death of experimental plants delays publication.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  1 May [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 7 (EH 88205991)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3133

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Kurr, Johann Gottlob von. 1833. Untersuchungen …
  • … subsequently published in Forms of flowers (1877). Kurr 1833 . See letter to Daniel …

From George Bentham   26 November 1861

Summary

Remarks about Labiatae, Linum, Oxalis and Viola occasioned by hearing CD’s paper ["Two forms of Primula", read 21 Nov 1861, Collected papers 2: 45–63].

Author:  George Bentham
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Nov 1861
Classmark:  DAR 111: 73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3331

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Jacquin, Nikolaus Josef. 1794. Oxalis. …

To Asa Gray   [after 11 October 1861]

Summary

Thanks AG for notes on hollies.

Replies to an argument for design. Feels it monstrous to consider orchids created as they are now seen, since every part reveals modification on modification.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  [after 11 Oct 1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (51a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3283

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To J. D. Hooker   24 September [1861]

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Summary

CD’s orchid paper is to become orchid book [Orchids].

Primula paper is done [Collected papers 2: 45–63].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  24 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 113
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3263

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

To John Murray   21 September [1861]

Summary

Asks JM’s opinion on publishing his MS on orchids. It has new facts, and resembles a Bridgewater Treatise, but only those who care for natural history would be interested. Would share the risk.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  21 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 106–107)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3259

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Darwin. Facsimile reprint of the 2d ed. (1877). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. …

To Asa Gray   21 July [1861]

Summary

Is writing his paper on orchids.

Is surprised that AG gets little or no response with Drosera.

Describes the two forms of Primula and asks whether AG knows any analogous cases of dimorphism.

Reports that John Stuart Mill approves of CD’s scientific method.

Discusses American politics.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  21 July [1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (61)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3216

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. …

To George Bentham   24 November [1861]

Summary

Requests more precise details about Oxalis, to which GB referred in his remarks on Primula.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Bentham
Date:  24 Nov [1861]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Bentham Correspondence, Vol. 3, Daintree–Dyer, 1830–1884, GEB/1/3: f. 688
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3328

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of flowers on plants of the same species. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. …

To J. D. Hooker   28 September [1861]

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Summary

Bates agrees with CD on neuter ants.

Orchids.

Repeating experiment of C. F. v. Gärtner to study Huxley’s idea of physiological species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  28 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 114
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3268

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. Gärtner, Karl Friedrich von. 1844. Versuche …

To Asa Gray   17 September [1861]

Summary

U. S. politics and relations with England.

Wants examples of dimorphism similar to Primula.

Structure and function of Spiranthes flower.

Observations and experiments on Drosera.

CD’s views on design.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  17 Sept [1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (72)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3256

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. McPherson, James M. 1988. Battle cry of …
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Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and …
  • … from a family that the Darwins had befriended. The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. …
  • … of a very heavy shower’, William wrote on 24 August 1877 . ‘The leaves were not at all depressed; …
  • … gardeners ( letter from W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and …
  • … a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). Research on movement would continue …
  • … of some Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Francis’s paper eventually appeared …
  • … wrote to the editor, George Croom Robertson, on 27 April 1877 , ‘I hope that you will be so good …
  • … had written to the editor Ernst Ludwig Krause on 30 June 1877 , ‘I have been much interested by …
  • … the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and 25 October [1877] ). …
  • … and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). Gifts of German and Dutch …
  • … Darwin and Ernst Haeckel). Writing to Darwin on 11 March 1877 , Krause declared the journal ‘an …
  • … the director, Adriaan Anthoni van Bemmelen, on 12 February 1877 : ‘I suppose that every worker at …
  • … of his 70th year. Darwin was in fact 68 on 12 February 1877. Distinguished guests and …
  • … & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker was asked repeatedly by …
  • … & me to dejeuner!!!’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 14 June 1877 ). Darwin was staying in …
  • … centuries to come’ ( letter from C. C. Graham, 30 January 1877 ). Graham then gave a lengthy …
  • … man and of societies’ ( letter from Marcellin de Bonnal, [1877] ). A similar complaint came from …
  • … by a duke!’ ( letter to J. M. Rodwell, 3 June 1877 ). Back home, he learned from his brother that …
  • … order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle’s remarks were …
  • … . In a letter from an unknown correspondent on 13 June 1877 , he was criticised for having quoted …
  • … monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An American banker, William Burrows …
  • … back our civilization’ ( letter from W. B. Bowles, 17 May 1877 ). Bowles proposed that such …
  • … of humanity beneath’ ( letter from W. B. Bowles, 18 May 1877 ). More transitional human …
  • … inflexible tails ( letter from Arthur Mellersh, 1 January 1877 ). The American physician Jesse …
  • … (Trollope 1867; letter to G. J. Romanes, [1 and 2 December 1877] ). Dispute and …
  • … George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24 September 1877 about his forthcoming work, Life …
  • … value’, he confessed in a letter of 25 November 1877 that the book had ‘resolved itself into a …
  • … physical’ ( letter from W. M. Moorsom, 10 September 1877 ). Darwin was doubtful of the elephant …

1877 letters now online

Summary

Flowers, bloom, a son married . . . and a suspended monkey in Cambridge at Darwin's honorary LLD ceremony. The transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters written to and from Darwin in 1877 are now online. Read more about Darwin's life in 1877…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of  over 600 letters written to and from Darwin in 1877  are now online. Read more about  Darwin& …

Photograph album of German and Austrian scientists

Summary

The album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade, and contained 165 portraits of German and Austrian scientists. The work was lavishly produced and bound in blue velvet with metal embossing. Its ornate…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade …
  • … have ever received ( Letter to Ernst Haeckel, 16 February 1877 )     …
  • … the start of his 70th year, but Darwin was only 68 in 1877. Despite this oversight, the album …
  • … world.— ( Letter from Leonard Blomefield, 12 March 1877 ) Familiar faces Ernst …
  • … with the final album. He wrote to Darwin on 9 February 1877 : ‘what will perhaps astonish you is …
  • … worth to give you ( Letter from J. V. Carus, 22 March 1877 )  The professor of …
  • … scientific work. ( Letter from C. G. Semper, 26 April 1877 ) Carl Kraus, an …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the …
  • … lasting pleasure. ( Letter to Pieter Harting, 19 March 1877 ) Harting had also written …
  • … it states his ‘69th Birthday’, when in fact he was 68 in 1877. It was arranged in alphabetical order …
  • … from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch correspondents …
  • … ( Letter from C. W. Thomson, 30 June 1877 ) Much earlier, in 1861, Tiberius Cornelis …

German and Dutch photograph albums

Summary

Darwin Day 2018: To celebrate Darwin's 209th birthday, we present two lavishly produced albums of portrait photographs which Darwin received from continental admirers 141 years ago. These unusual gifts from Germany and the Netherlands are made…

Matches: 3 hits

  • …   In 1877, Charles Darwin was sent some unusual birthday presents: two lavishly …
  • … conferred on me ( Letter to Otto Zacharias, [24 February 1877] ) The two albums …
  • … sympathy. ( Letter to A. A. van Bemmelen, 12 February 1877 )  View the Dutch album …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … tiredness of the later years (e.g. letter to E.M. Dicey, [1877] ). Working …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s study of human nature …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grains by a dilution method.  In his letter of 9 March 1877 , Darwin wrote: ‘Your calculation of …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to …
  • … and forenames Occupation Age in 1877 Residence Date …
  • … Leiden 13 June 1823 Rotterdam 2 June 1877 Zoeterwoude …
  • … 5 October 1808 Wildenborch 4 June 1877 Klein Dochteren …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 10746 – Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his opinion on the …
  • … Letter 11267f – Darwin, S. to Darwin, [3 December 1877] Darwin’s daughter-in-law …

Exercise: Caricatures of Science

Summary

Caricatures provide intriguing insights into both ideals and transgressions of gender. The following six images show caricatured representations of nineteenth-century men and women of science. They provide insight into the boundaries of what was deemed …

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Lydia Becker (1877) Caricature of Lydia Becker from …

Floral Dimorphism

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a series of smaller studies on botanical subjects. Titled The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, it consisted primarily of…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … | Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a …
  • … findings on floral dimorphism were eventually published in 1877, but these experiments and …
  • … SOURCES Book Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the …
  • … experiment, the class read chapter 1 of Charles Darwin’s 1877 T he Different Forms of …
  • … Flowers on Plants of the Same Species (London: John Murray, 1877), 16. [2] Ibid., 30. …

German poems presented to Darwin

Summary

Experiments in deepest reverence The following poems were enclosed with a photograph album sent as a birthday gift to Charles Darwin by his German and Austrian admirers (see letter from From Emil Rade, [before 16] February 1877). The poems were…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … (see letter from From Emil Rade , [before 16] February 1877). The poems were composed by …
  • … in Rade’s account of the making of the album (Rade 1877, pp. 39–40), but the others were published …
  • … Letter from Emil Rade 1    [before 16] February 1877 2 Münster i./Westf. …
  • … From Emil Rade   [before 16] February 1877 2 Münster i./Westf. February 1877. …
  • … this letter and the letter to Emil Rade, 16 February 1877. 3. The gift was a photograph …
  • … Appendix VI. A number of other poems were included in Rade 1877.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the …
  • … Title and forenames Occupation Age in 1877 Residence Date of birth …
  • … Leiden 13 june 1823 Rotterdam 2 june 1877 Zoeterwoude …
  • … 5 october 1808 Wildenborch 4 june 1877 Klein Dochteren …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11096 - Darwin to Romanes, G. J., [9 August 1877] Darwin points out a mistake made …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … published his findings both in Expression and in an 1877 article titled, ‘ A Biographical …
  • … Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] Psychologist Christopher Graham …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … and proofreading Darwin’s second edition of  Orchids  (1877). By January of the following …
  • … ( Dipsacus sylvestris )’ at the Royal Society on 1 March 1877 (F. Darwin 1877a). His address was …
  • … and a plate of sixteen figures, was published in July 1877 in the  Quarterly Journal of …
  • … the journal by the end of the month ( Nature , 23 August 1877, p. 339). Although, as Darwin …
  • … to his father’s beloved  Drosera rotundifolia  in June 1877, finding sundews that had been ‘fed’ …
  • … Grant.   References Darwin, C. 1877. The Contractile Filaments of the …
  • … teasel ( Dipsacus sylvestris ). (Abstract.) [Read 1 March 1877.]  Proceedings of the Royal …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 11221 - Darwin to Darwin, H., [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, …

People featured in the German and Austrian photograph album

Summary

Biographical details of people from the Habsburg Empire that appeared in the album of German and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes Mattes for providing these details and for permission to make his…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes …
  • …  in Linz (1871), Vienna (1873) and Prostějov (1877). M. Pichler: Notice of death. In: …
  • … of Vienna (Dr., 1873). Habilitation in palaeontology (1877) and geology (1880) at the Technical …
  • … (1859), geologist (1873) and finally chief geologist (1877) and  Bergrat  of the Imperial …
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