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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Abbot, F. E. (17) Abernethy, J. W. (1) …
  • Allen, Grant (13) Allen, J. A. (b) (1) …
  • Allen, Thomas (2) Allman, G. J. (4) …
  • Isaac (17) Andersson, C. J. (3) …
  • Ansell, G. F. (1) Ansted, D. T. (8) …
  • … (2) Arruda Furtado, Francisco d’ (10) …
  • Athenæum (11) Atkin, J. R. (1) …
  • Ayres, W. P. (1) B. J. Edwards & Co. (1) …
  • Balch, C. L. (3) Baldwin, J. D. (2) …
  • J. H. (2) Bartlett, A. D. (15) …
  • Brooks, W. C. (1) Brown, D. J. (1) …
  • Dudley (1) Campbell, G. D. (3) Canby
  • … & Galpin (1) Caton, J. D. (9) …
  • Mary (1) Conway, M. D. (9) Conybeare
  • B. A. E. (1) Cooper, J. D. (2) …
  • James (40) Crick, W. D. (11) Crier, …
  • Elizabeth (9) Darwin, Emma (191) …
  • Hermenegildo (1) Gisborne, Emma (1) …
  • J.-B. P. (1) Gärtner, Emma (2) …
  • Holub, Emil (3) Hooker, F. H. (12) …
  • Niven, James (1) Nixon, Emma (1) …
  • Peel, Jonathan (5) Pender, Emma (1) …
  • Wedderburn, David (1) Wedgwood, C. S. (8) …
  • Elizabeth (11) Wedgwood, Emma (191) …
  • Wrigley, Alfred (8) Wuttke, Emma (1) …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • The experiments were carried outat the suggestion of Dr Hookerand what little he has ascertained
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin
  • style. Letter 2461  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • Letter 2475  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [2 July 1859] Darwin returns the manuscript of

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 13 hits

  • for evaluation, and persuaded his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker to comment on a paper on  Verbascum
  • committed suicide at the end of April; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic
  • thriving, and when illness made work impossible, Darwin and Hooker read a number of novels, and
  • the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin
  • kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] ). However, …
  • griefs & pains: these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). …
  • Sic transit gloria mundi, with a vengeance’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1865] ). …
  • know it is folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He
  • and Darwin had given it up by early July ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 July 1865] ). In
  • … ‘able to write about an hour on most days’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 22 December [1865] ). …
  • willing to bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … be well abused’, he wrote to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker on 21 January , ‘for as my son Frank …
  • … the proof-sheets, rather than waiting for the bound copies. Hooker suggested one of the reasons …
  • … tell heavily against natural selection’, Darwin wrote to Hooker on 21 January . Darwin read the …
  • … arrogant, odious beast that ever lived,’ Darwin wrote to Hooker on 16 September . Darwin …
  • … laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21 March . Darwin …
  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … in June, and was married on 31 August. Darwin remarked to Hooker on 23 July , ‘her loss will be …
  • … & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). …
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • … ‘Im a grown man now’, he reminded Darwin, ‘& sh d . stand on my own footing, & if it is
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that
  • Mivart had written the article ( enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • to write to Mivart directly after he knew the full result of Hookers and Huxleys representations ( …
  • 15 th  he published that shabby rejoinder’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1874] ).  On
  • satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a
  • a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September
  • to become Darwins secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made
  • the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October
  • letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw agreat blessingin the rumour
  • dead uncles position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • the accursed Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent
  • … ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January , ‘I sh d  have a very bad heart, as hard as
  • to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such
  • awaythat sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , ‘did you look at
  • thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, …
  • editor of the  London and Westminster Review . When Hooker later tried to refute the claims of the
  • a scamp & I begin to think a veritable ass’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 September [1868] ). …
  • on 17 April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently
  • … (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin complained to Hooker, ‘I am bothered with heaps of
  • kind almost heroic, in you to sacrifice your hair and pay 3 d  in the cause of science
  • information on colour changes in the canary (letters from J. J. Weir, [26] March 1868 and 3
  • added, ‘for it is clear that I have none’ ( letter to J. J. Weir, 30 May [1868] ). Sexual
  • role of colour, sound, and smell in attracting females. J. J. Weir reported on 14 April 1868
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • Wallace that he had begun the previous year, writing to Hooker on 21 May , ‘I always distrust
  • circulated to remote parts of the world. A correspondent of Hookers distributed it in Japan ( …
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwins
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, 22 July 1880 ).         …
  • … Butler, 3 January 1880 ). At the top of Butler’s letter, Emma Darwin wrote: ‘it means war we think’ …
  • … my excitement’ ( letter from Horace Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwin’s …
  • … …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). In April, …
  • … In the previous year, he had consulted Joseph Dalton Hooker about the possibility of a Civil List …
  • … year was marked by the loss of several close family members. Emma’s brother Josiah Wedgwood III died …
  • … Surrey, which became a regular destination for Charles and Emma, and also a site of scientific …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 21 hits

  • exclaimed to his close friend, the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker: ‘Hurrah! I have been 52 hours
  • 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work which
  • by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins
  • …  peduncles to test sensitivity, and in his request to Hooker for another specimen: ‘I want it
  • plant morphology. Many of his other correspondents, such as Hooker and Gray, had grown accustomed to
  • the  Lythrum  paper was published, Darwin remarked to Hooker in a letter of 26 November [1864] …
  • letter of 22 October [1864] , Darwin triumphantly wrote to Hooker: ‘I will fight you to the death, …
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • and 249). When Darwin requested orchid specimens from Hooker in November, he said that he did
  • with his stipend being paid by Darwin himself ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [1 April 1864] ). …
  • often at odds with one another: ‘Gardeners are the very dl, & where two or three are gathered
  • enough to play your part  over  them’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 April 1864] ). …
  • … … they do require very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless
  • that in giving I am hastening the fall’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 20 April 1864 ). In his
  • a first-class cabin for the journey ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 August 1864] ). Darwin
  • you have bearded this lion in his den’ ( letter to B. D. Walsh, 4 December [1864] ). Walsh also
  • he thought himsanguine & unsafe’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 February 1864 ). Hooker
  • correct if they contradicted the Bible ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [19 September 1864] ). When
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 11 hits

  • tapping into the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading
  • of face-to-face contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close
  • The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. Hooker. The second is between Darwin
  • Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] Darwin begins with a charming
  • Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] Darwin catches up on personal
  • name to specific name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In
  • Letter 1260Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849 Darwin opens by discussing their
  • of gneiss. Letter 1319Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850 Hooker
  • J. D. Hooker to take Scott on at Kew. Darwin notes that Emma begs him not to employ him at Down. He
  • Letter 1176Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, Emma, [201 May 1848] Darwin writes to his wife Emma. …
  • Catherines and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Henry Huxley, William Benjamin Carpenter, and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Others were not quite as
  • cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an early notice that
  • of the geological record; but this criticism, he told Hooker, did not at all concern his main
  • principles of scientific investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above
  • it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This
  • Several correspondents, such as his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood and Heinrich Georg Bronn, expressed
  • considered it more a failure than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). …
  • two physiologists, and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like
  • … ‘topics of the dayat the meeting in a letter from Hooker written from Oxford. Hookers letter, one
  • Owenhad a furious battle over Darwins absent body’, Hooker attended the fabled Saturday session of
  • … ‘master of the field after 4 hours battle’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 July 1860). Other
  • were already proved) to his own views.—’ ( letter from J. S. Henslow to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1860
  • these visits have led to changed structure.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 27 April [1860] ). Tracing
  • later, ‘just as at a game of chess.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 [July 1860] ). With the work
  • from non=nitrogenised substances.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 31 [August 1860] ). Relying in part
  • level. Describing her husbands current enthusiasm, Emma Darwin wrote to Mary Lyell: ‘At present he
  • suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal.’ ( Emma Darwin  2: 177). As was so
  • fatal illness never far from their minds, Charles and Emma did whatever they could to promote Ettys

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … work of preparing new Editions’, he complained again to Hooker on 18 August. Finally, by …
  • … much more than insectivorous plants. As he confessed to Hooker on 12 December , ‘I have not felt …
  • … during the affair by the loyalty of his close friends, Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. …
  • … honoured George. You have indeed been a true friend.’ Hooker was hampered by his position as …
  • … & if he speaks to me should let him feel it .’ Hooker also directed some of his anger …
  • … thirst for vengeance is now quite Satisfied’, he told Hooker on 17 January , ‘I feel now like a …
  • … firm. Darwin was impressed by the device, remarking to Hooker on 13 October : ‘Horace has made a …
  • … George Sketchley Ffinden resurfaced. In 1873, Charles and Emma Darwin and the Lubbocks had sought …
  • … and the Darwins did not warm thereafter. On 24 December , Emma wrote triumphantly to the former …
  • … Henry Eeles Dresser. ‘The horror was great’, Henrietta Emma Litchfield wrote to her brother Leonard …
  • … to the Royal Society on his behalf. Darwin complained to Hooker on 13 October , ‘It is not at all …
  • … had reservations about the paper’s merit. He confessed to Hooker two days later, ‘after agonies of …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … life in Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, …
  • … for 3 February, Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the …
  • … researcher, and sympathised with his close friends Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray, whose situations …
  • … Darwin wrote to Gray on 28 January . On 14 November, Hooker himself acknowledged he was ‘ over …
  • … was never far away in the Darwin family. In April, while Emma was suffering from a feverish cold, …
  • … In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in …
  • … associated with a happy event. On 7 September, Charles and Emma became grandparents for the first …
  • … have heart to go on again . . . I cannot conceive Emma and Charles exhibited a practical …
  • … August to be with her daughter at the time of the birth, and Emma was unimpressed by her. ‘The more …
  • … word she says’, she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August …
  • … ability to console Francis after Amy’s death gained Emma’s respect. ‘She is always able to speak’, …
  • … of Darwin’s recently completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September …
  • … he will do I cannot conceive’, Darwin wrote anxiously to Hooker on 11 September. By the time …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …
  • … a result, Darwin rarely spent a day without the company of Emma and at least some of his children. …
  • … they employed eight servants including two nursery maids. Emma actively supervised and assisted with …
  • … to see their father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although …
  • … period, as Darwin’s attempts to comfort his friend Joseph Hooker on the death of his six-year-old …
  • … about the ‘awesome state of indecision’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  10 October [1850] ) as he and Emma
  • … children in letters to friends, and the choices that he and Emma made were deliberately conventional …
  • … the age of twenty-six. This meant that in old age Darwin and Emma continued to share Down House with …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 19 hits

  • years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. The letters they
  • of Darwins findings had been spread by the publication by J. S. Henslow and Adam Sedgwick of
  • by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II, during one of Darwins visits to
  • results of the  Beagle  voyage. With the help of J. S. Henslow, William Whewell, and other
  • by Adam White; infusoria by C. G. Ehrenberg; fungi by M. J. Berkeley; and corals by William Lonsdale
  • were neglected. During the voyage Darwin had expected that J. S. Henslow would describe his
  • the end of 1843, he increasingly hoped that William Jackson Hooker or his son Joseph might be
  • were discovered that contain lists of Darwins plants (see D. M. Porter 1981). Charles Lyell
  • … . . . on the origin & variation of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   …
  • filled, with facts It is true that, until he took J. D. Hooker into his confidence in
  • to convince anyone that he had a sound solution to what J. F. W. Herschel in a letter to Lyell had
  • clearly  under sub-laws.' To his cousin, W. D. Fox, [25 January 1841] , he wrote: & …
  • this field and on friends like Henslow, T. C. Eyton, and W. D. Fox, who were knowledgeable about
  • … (Simpson 1961, p. 53). Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 2, Appendix III). The letters that Emma and Darwin subsequently exchanged
  • correspondence is that Darwin had evidently communicated to Emma that he had doubts about religion, …
  • as she was, from marrying him. Just after their marriage, Emma states that she has the impression
  • were no doubts as to how one ought to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). …
  • … [20 February 1840] , ‘as usual has been my enemybut D r . Holland tells me he thinks it is only

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 16 hits

  • …  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, …
  • establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to Hookers letter which he put down to his
  • he took Dr Gullys water cure. In Darwins letter to Hooker, he described Dr Gullys treatment: …
  • the years around 1848, 1852, 1859, and 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861for example, …
  • vomiting wonderfully & I am gaining vigour .’ (letter to JDHooker, 13 April [1864] ) …
  • … (see, for example, Correspondence vol. 2, letter to J. S. Henslow, 14 October [1837] , …
  • troubles, see Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Caroline Wedgwood, [May 1838] , and letter to
  • attacks ofperiodical vomitingin a letter to W. D. Fox, [7 June 1840] ( Correspondence vol
  • 1849] , andvomiting every weekin his letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 March 1849 ( …
  • almost daily (see Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6 May 1864] …
  • decision to consult John Chapman.  In a letter to J. D. Hooker, [20-] 22 February [1864] ( …
  • 38, 47, 64). Fainting androckinghad been recorded in Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242) on several
  • sensationshas been found. On Darwins reliance on Emma Darwins companionship and care see, for
  • from gout (see Correspondence vol. 1, letter to W. D. Fox, [25-9 January 1829] , and
  • discussed in Colp 1977, pp. 31-2, 47, 98. In his letter to J. D. Hooker, 5 March [1863] ( …
  • alive’. See also Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, 17 March

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] Darwin sends a manuscript copy of
  • of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her eldest son, …
  • tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • patience and care. Letter 6110 - Samuelson, J. to Darwin, [10 April 1868] …
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12
  • as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September 1872 ). He
  • anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January [1872] ). A
  • am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). Piqued, …
  • … `fundamental intellectual errors’ ( letter from St GJMivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin
  • to think he felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite
  • if only `in another world’ ( letter from St GJMivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined
  • …  but asked Mivart not to acknowledge it ( letter to St GJMivart, 11 January [1872] ). 'I
  • selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to JETaylor on 13 January , and he complained
  • rather than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and
  • dispute involving his close friend Joseph Dalton Hooker came to a headHooker, director of the
  • system in the glasshouses had escalated to the point where Hooker applied over Ayrtons head direct
  • your enemies be cursed, is my pious frame of mind Hookers cause was taken up by his
  • the independence of science from bureaucratic interference. Hooker had kept Darwin well informed: …
  • was Darwins wholeheartedly partisan reply ( letter to JDHooker, 14 May 1872 ). On 13 June, a
  • to make one turn into an old honest Tory’ ( letter to JDHooker, 12 July [1872] ). …
  • own muscles when attending women in labour ( letter from JTRothrock, 25 November 1872 ); …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • of the microscope led his head to `fail’ ( letter to WDFox, 29 October [1872] ) he had begun
  • by hearing about Panagæus!’ Darwin wrote ( letter to WDFox,  16 July [1872] ).  I
  • my life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  …
  • out such a litany of ill health to one correspondent that Emma protested: `My wife commands me to

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … subscriber to the RSPCA, he had campaigned with his wife Emma against the use of steel traps on game …
  • … (men of course) or I might get one or two’ (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January …
  • … after night, prepares and sets instruments of torture’ ( Emma Darwin (1904) 2: 201). …
  • … scientific men’. Darwin sent a copy to Joseph Dalton Hooker requesting his approval as president of …

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions

Summary

There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

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