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Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 26 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect
  • ease of distribution sometime in late 1867 or early 1868. Darwin went over his questions, refining
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • and not the susceptibilities of a moral nature.” Darwin did not typically countenance such
  • the collection of information to its display in print. After Darwin received all of the replies to
  • exceptyesorno.” “The same state of mindDarwin would later assert in Expression of the
  • uniformity.” Table of Correspondence about Darwins Questionnaire (click on the letter
  • could available online ahead of schedule as part of theDarwin and Human Natureproject, funded by
  • Southampton, England letter to W.E. Darwin shrugging/pouting of
  • Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding
  • blushing Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867
  • Bartlett and S. Sutton Darwin, Francis
  • pouting Darwin, W.E. [after 29 March 1868] …
  • blushing in blind students Darwin, W.E. [7
  • Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about
  • Abbey Place, London, England letter to Emma Darwin baby expression
  • Penmaenmawr, Conway, Wales letter to Emma Darwin infant daughter
  • Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa
  • Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • astonishment Wedgwood, F.J. [1867-72] …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwins niece, Margaret, …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwins
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther fora great

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks Emma to pass on thanks to Darwin for …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 27 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • he istorn to piecesby people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February
  • for a US edition had been in place since December 1869, while German, Russian, French, and Dutch
  • letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were considerable. After
  • man.’ Promoting the book As usual, Darwin did his best to obtain a wide and favourable
  • … (see Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his
  • received a special acknowledgment in the form of a gift. Darwin credited her for whatever he had
  • … ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • his own family circle, especially his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood, whom Darwin had cited on the origin
  • passing temptation of hunting it’ ( Descent  2: 392). Wedgwood, however, denied that a simple
  • or remorse. The true essence of conscience, according to Wedgwood, was shame, and he went so far as
  • by the presence of its master. ( Letter from Hensleigh Wedgwood, [39 March 1871] .) Some
  • Morley. George and Henrietta remarked upon his dispute with Wedgwood. Darwins theory of the moral
  • and morally bound. In one particularly long letter to Wedgwood, Darwin alluded to the pain of
  • agreement is a satisfaction to me’ ( letter to Hensleigh Wedgwood, 9 March 1871 ). A
  • home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CDs niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried
  • … & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • of family, home and sociability. Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to Darwin, [6 September 1862] Claparède
  • are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] …
  • critic”. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2 January 1864] Haeckel
  • works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30 March 1864] Lydia Becker
  • to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., [20 November 1865] …
  • of physiology at Bedford College for girls. Appealing to Emmasfeminine sympathies”, Cresy is keen
  • masculine nor pedantic”. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] …
  • … , (1829). Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written
  • them ears”. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] Sarah

Expression

Summary

Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the Beagle voyage. He was fascinated by the different sounds and gestures among the peoples of Tierra del Fuego, and on his return from the voyage he started recording observations…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the …
  • … and sympathy, comparing the behaviour of humans and animals. Darwin's work on expression was …
  • … in 1872, it had been over thirty years in gestation. Darwin sometimes referred to expression …
  • … more that I shd like to write but I have not strength '. Darwin persevered, however. He …
  • … to two volumes, and then so did Descent . By 1870, Darwin had amassed so much material that it …
  • … his marriage, he shared his interest in expression with Emma (then his fiancée), and asked her to …
  • … and their communications were often addressed either to Emma or her eldest daughter . 'I am …
  • … questions,' wrote Margaret Vaughan Williams to Henrietta in 1869, ' but we do find it so …
  • … to comfort him '. Unlike the many men who contributed to Darwin's research, and whose …
  • … by name. While he was observing his children at home, Darwin was also studying expression in …
  • … out & purr '. Observations extended to caged creatures. Darwin requested his niece Lucy …
  • … make it scream without hurting it much? ' When in London, Darwin sometimes went to the zoo …
  • … of the oddest ever asked '. Another main object of Darwin's investigation was …
  • … and shake their heads horizontally to express dissent? '. Darwin continued to refine his …
  • … were able to distribute additional copies locally, so that Darwin's questionnaire reached …
  • … North and South America, and South Africa. Despite Darwin's precisely worded questions, …
  • … me more as the snarling contentions of cowardly dogs '. Darwin received one response from a …
  • … Gaika's replies, written out in English, so impressed Darwin that he remarked to his colonial …
  • … a truly wonderful fact in the progress of civilization '. Darwin's outlook was …
  • … the worse servant he is. ' Most of the overt racism of Darwin's correspondents was passed …
  • … between peoples were also erased. Such exclusions allowed Darwin to conclude more readily that …
  • … ancestral species. Another class of subjects whom Darwin thought were particularly important …
  • … the inability to control or conceal strong emotions. In 1869, he contacted the well-known alienist …
  • … to that of some animals when under threat . For Browne, Darwin's letters and the opportunity …
  • … '. On learning of Browne's interest in photography, Darwin lent him another set of …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it wasall imposture’ …
  • stop word getting to America of thestrange newsthat Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his
  • the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in
  • and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. vvii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low
  • generous Darwin by his previous anonymous attacks ([Mivart] 1869; 1871c). In his review, Mivart
  • satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a
  • a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September
  • to become Darwins secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made
  • the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October
  • letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw agreat blessingin the rumour
  • dead uncles position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection wasthe
  • 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwins theory of sexual selection as
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is
  • 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwins request, he modified his
  • the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from
  • blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January
  • as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • and descent in the  Fortnightly Review , and asked Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly
  • … ‘fast passing awaythat sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , …
  • authorship. John Murray thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would
  • of Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwins ire still further: ‘he is a scamp
  • all sorts of subjects In writing  Variation , Darwin had been careful to acknowledge
  • great influx of unsolicited letters from persons unknown to Darwin, offering additional facts that
  • 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed Darwin
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwins
  • paper was read before the Linnean Society on 4 February 1869, but remained unpublished until it
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The story of Charles Darwins involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It
  • unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwins life, as it reveals his
  • belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwins parents attended a Unitarian
  • the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwins lifetime, the vast majority of the
  • income was essential to enjoy a gentlemanly lifestyle. For Darwin, who could rely on the financial
  • compatible with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwins Cambridge mentorJohn Stevens
  • … (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). Darwin started on his journey around the world
  • it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 256 April [1832] ). Darwins
  • Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] ). Writing to Fox
  • about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [912 August] 1835 ). Darwins doubts about orthodox belief, and
  • the late 1830s, and in correspondence with his fiancéeEmma Wedgwood, in 1838 and 1839, as can be
  • within six years of his return from the  Beagle  voyage, Darwin moved to Down House, in the
  • of England. The whole family took the sacrament, although Emma used to make the children turn around
  • where their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwins brother Erasmus, Emmas sister
  • church involvement can be attributed to the influence of Emma, whose religious scruples are
  • Fund (a local charity), which he administered from 1848 to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May
  • Ffinden strongly disapproved of the Darwins. In his eyes, Emmas Unitarian leanings and Darwins
  • schools in this period, the Down school was Anglican. Emma wished it to be used as a reading room
  • even altered the habits of the household in order to allow Emma and the children to attend his
  • increase his desire to actually attend Sunday services with Emma and the children. Darwins life in

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 25 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work
  • …  produce tendrils However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down
  • tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins excitement about his
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of
  • for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility
  • habits of climbing plants’ (‘Climbing plants’), which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in
  • was often the case, he was interested in transitional forms. Darwin came to think, for example, that
  • and tendril-bearers. At the end of his paper, Darwin used species from the genus  Lathyrus
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • on them. Nevertheless, his work in 1864 contributed to his 1869 paper focusing on the role of
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Family life

Summary

From the long letters exchanged with his sisters during the Beagle voyage, through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the births—and deaths—of their children, to the  contributions of his sons and daughters  to his scientific…

Matches: 1 hits

  • through correspondence about his marriage to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, the birthsand deathsof