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Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 18 hits

  • The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). …
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 18 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • friends in England, copies of hisReview of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it
  • of natural selection to his friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles
  • year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a part of
  • DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have beenengaged in a very presumptuous work
  • the opportunity I enjoyed of making your acquaintance at Hookers three years ago; and besides that
  • sheet of note-paper! DARWIN11   My dear HookerWhat a remarkably nice and kind
  • 22   Hurrah I got yesterday my 41st Grass! Hooker is younger than Darwin and Gray by
  • species beforeDARWIN24   My dear Hookeryou cannot imagine how pleased I am
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848
  • C DARWIN, 1819 AUGUST 1862 149 C DARWIN TO J. D. HOOKER 26 JULY 1863 150
  • A GRAY 3 AUGUST 1871 201  TO A GRAY 3 JUNE [1874] 202  FROM A GRAY 16

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne
  • Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall sends
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwins niece, Lucy, sends a
  • Letter 9616  - Marshall, Tto Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall details
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those
  • a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of
  • women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the
  • and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • it had been proofread and edited bya lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862
  • tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • patience and care. Letter 6110 - Samuelson, J. to Darwin, [10 April 1868] …
  • Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … is to lessen injury to leaves from radiation’, he wrote to Hooker on 25 March ; ‘this has …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … and an earlier effort to promote his scheme at the 1874 meeting of the British Association in …
  • … oddest thing that ever happened to me’, Darwin wrote to Hooker on 14 December. Mindful of the lack …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February 1876 ). When
  • blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) …
  • effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. OShaughnessy 1876), which, he
  • and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although
  • Mivart made a slanderous attack on George Darwin in late 1874 in an anonymous article, which
  • for 3 February, Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the
  • of blackballing so distinguished a zoologist ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 January 1876 ). Both
  • results in this years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less
  • by the mutual pressure of very young buds’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 June [1876] ). Darwin
  • researcher, and sympathised with his close friends Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray, whose situations
  • Darwin wrote to Gray on 28 January . On 14 November, Hooker himself acknowledged he wasover
  • by the societys decision. He already knew that Joseph Hooker, president of the Royal Society, who
  • paper wasnot worthy of being read ever’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 28 January 1876 ). Darwin
  • because of along and terrible illness’ ( letter to C. S. Wedgwood, 20 April 1876 ). By the time
  • of illness & misery there is in the world’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 26 May [1876] ). A
  • Hildebrand, 6 December 1876 , and letter from F. J. Cohn, 31 December 1876 ). To Darwins
  • in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July [1872] ). …
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12
  • as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September 1872 ). He
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January [1872] ). A
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). Piqued, …
  • … `fundamental intellectual errors’ ( letter from St GJMivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • dispute involving his close friend Joseph Dalton Hooker came to a headHooker, director of the
  • system in the glasshouses had escalated to the point where Hooker applied over Ayrtons head direct
  • your enemies be cursed, is my pious frame of mind Hookers cause was taken up by his
  • the independence of science from bureaucratic interference. Hooker had kept Darwin well informed: …
  • Darwins wholeheartedly partisan reply ( letter to JDHooker, 14 May 1872 ). On 13 June, a
  • to make one turn into an old honest Tory’ ( letter to JDHooker, 12 July [1872] ). …
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • Ruck, the sister of an old schoolfriend; he married Amy in 1874Francis, still a medical student
  • of the microscope led his head to `fail’ ( letter to WDFox, 29 October [1872] ) he had begun
  • by hearing about Panagæus!’ Darwin wrote ( letter to WDFox,  16 July [1872] ).  I

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 28 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v. …
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • Brown 1814] & at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read
  • on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. …
  • Teneriffe. in Pers. Narr. [A. von Humboldt 181429] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • sheep [Youatt 1831, 1834, 1837]. Verey Philosophie dHist. Nat. [Virey 1835] read
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • He is Horticulturist in France. Michaux, according to Hooker has written on topography of N. …
  • chiefly on distribution of forms said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith
  • … ]. many very useful papers for me:— not in Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise
  • … —— Mauritius & C. of Good Hope Hooker recommends order [Backhouse
  • Decandolles Veg: Organ: } recommended by  Hooker . [A. P. de
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • design . (Bridgewater Treatise no. 4.) London. [9th ed. (1874) in Darwin Library.]  119: 5a
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • Peacock, George. 1855Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S.  London.  *128: 172; 128: 21

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 27 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • the advantages of both while Francis was working abroad. Darwin was privy to the inner workings of
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. Darwin described his experimental practice
  • combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). While  …
  • the phenomenon. A few days later, Darwin wrote to Joseph Hooker, ‘ Why are the leaves & fruit
  • injure the leaves? if indeed this is at all the case ’. Hooker, who had also speculated on the
  • on  Mimosa albida from Kew Gardens, he explained to Hooker, ‘ I have never syringed (with tepid
  • between 45 o  & 90 o  to the horizon ’. By May 1874, Thiselton-Dyer had observed some
  • whether they are coated with a waxy secretion ’. He told Hooker, ‘ I have been looking over my old
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July 1877] ). ‘ …
  • night & we have made out a good deal ’, but confiding to Hooker, ‘ We have been working like
  • …  movements of leaves ’. He confirmed this view to Hooker, ‘ From what Frank & I have seen, I
  • was asked to send any spare seeds he might have. ‘ I sh dlike to see how the embryo breaks
  • using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December 1878 ). The
  • that the method wasall that I can desire, but as I sh d   like to give a very large number of
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • … ‘ I am very sorry that Sachs is so sceptical, for I w drather convert him than any other half
  • do  not  when cauterised bend geotropically & why sh d  we say this is owing to injury, when
  • … ). Hooker offered to write to Egypt for the seeds (From JDHooker   29 November 1879; DCP-LETT
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • Eduard Koch had already agreed to publish it ( letter from JVCarus18 September 1880 ). The
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested