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To W. W. Baxter   16 July [1872?]

Summary

Orders a very small pot of "purest & best Extract of Hyosciamus for experimental purposes".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Walmisley Baxter
Date:  16 July [1872?]
Classmark:  Bromley Historic Collections, Bromley Central Library (Baxter Collection, 1136/1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7280

To Eduard Strasburger   29 July 1872

Summary

Comments on EAS’s work [? Die Coniferen und die Gnetaceen: eine morphologische Studie (1872)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Eduard Adolf (Eduard) Strasburger
Date:  29 July 1872
Classmark:  Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Bonn, Handschriftenabteilung (NL Strasburger I)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8398

From Dr von Gloeden   1 July 1872

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Summary

Comments on Descent.

Attempts to explain differing sex ratios in births from illegitimate unions, Jewish marriages, and Christian marriages.

Speculates on role of male and female elements in conception.

Thinks survival of individual conflicts in some degree with survival of species; for example, hybrids often live longer than fertile individuals.

Author:  [–] von Gloeden
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 165: 57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8400

To F. E. Abbot   2 July 1872

Summary

Renews subscription to Index.

Was interested in FEA’s lecture on "The God of science" [Index 24 Feb 1872].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Ellingwood Abbot
Date:  2 July 1872
Classmark:  Harvard University Archives (Papers of F. E. Abbot, 1841–1904. Named Correspondence, 1857–1903. Folder: Darwin, Charles and W. E. Darwin (son), 1871–1883, box 44. HUG 1101)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8401

To Asa Gray   8 July [1872]

Summary

Thanks for AG’s book, How plants behave [see 8363].

Is correcting proofs of Expression.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  8 July [1872]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (107)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8402

To John Denny   9 July 1872

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Summary

Has read JD’s articles in the Gardeners’ Chronicle [(1872): 872, 904–5].

Questions him on the fertility of certain varieties of Pelargonium which are fertile with some varieties but infertile with others.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Denny
Date:  9 July 1872
Classmark:  Special Collections, Library, University of Otago (DeB MS 55)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8403

To Leonard Darwin   11 July [1872]

Summary

CD wants no more alterations than are necessary [to proofs of Expression]. Warns LD that "any alteration seems at first an improvement".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Darwin
Date:  11 July [1872]
Classmark:  DAR 153: 90
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8404

To ?   10 July [1872–3]

Summary

Sends publication details of Coral reefs, which he thinks is now only available in Geology of the ‘Beagle’: Geological observations on coral reefs, volcanic islands, and on South America.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  10 July [1872-3]
Classmark:  Stuart Lutz Historic Documents (January 2020)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8404F

To Charles Lyell   12 July [1872]

Summary

Comments on enclosed discussion of S. American geology by Agassiz. Mentions elevation of Patagonia and glaciation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 July [1872]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.420)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8405

To J. D. Hooker   12 July [1872]

Summary

Overjoyed at the way the newspapers have taken up JDH’s case. The memorial has done great good this way, whatever the wretched Government does. It is enough to make one a Tory. JDH has done a service to all men of science by showing governments that they cannot be trampled on.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12 July [1872]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 222–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8406

To ?   12 July [1872–4]

Summary

Has not strength or time to hunt for Herminium monorchis; has failed to make orchid seeds germinate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  12 July [1872-4]
Classmark:  National Library of Russia (Collection of P. Waxell (F. 965): no 637)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8406F

From John Denny   12 July 1872

Summary

Replies to CD’s queries. Duke of Cornwall Pelargonium is fertile with its own pollen. Has failed to produce hybrids from other varieties besides P. peltatum and P. elegans. Sends numbers of the Florist which contain an account of his mode of procedure ["On cross-breeding pelargoniums" Florist & Pomologist (1872): 10, 34, 50].

Reports a confirmation of his theory of the prepotence of the male parent.

Author:  John Denny
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 162: 159
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8407

From W. D. Fox   13 July [1872]

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Summary

Will not pass through London, so will not be able to call at Down.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 July [1872]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 195
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8408

From J. V. Carus   14 July 1872

Summary

Asks whether he can start soon on translating Expression.

Thinks CD has gone a little too far on St G. J. Mivart’s objection, which he thinks did very little harm in Germany.

JVC’s history of zoology is finished [Geschichte der Zoologie bis auf Joh. Müller und Charl. Darwin (1872)].

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 161: 82
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8409

To John Denny   14 July [1872]

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Summary

Discusses JD’s crossing experiments with Pelargonium; notes that his conclusions on male prepotence oppose those of Gärtner. Suggests that his observations on differences in fertility of certain varieties of Pelargonium crossed with certain other varieties be communicated to the Linnean Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Denny
Date:  14 July [1872]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 114–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8410

From F. C. Donders   14 July 1872

Summary

Thanks CD for invitation but declines because of his need for a rest instead of coming to England in July.

Repeats his offer to help CD at any time. "I am always learning by trying to answer your questions."

Author:  Frans Cornelis (Franciscus Cornelius) Donders
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 162: 233
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8411

From Hubert Airy   [before 15] July 1872

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Summary

Outlines his theory on the origin of existing orders of leaf arrangement. Believes spiral and whorled orders have evolved from a primitive distichous arrangement. These arrangements permit a compact bud form of small surface area that can withstand external changes in temperature, and in particular can tolerate frost.

Author:  Hubert Airy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 15] July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 159: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8412

To W. D. Fox   16 July [1872]

Summary

Is correcting proofs for Expression.

Family news.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  16 July [1872]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8413

From Hubert Airy   16 July 1872

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Summary

Thanks CD for reading his MS [8412] and for his suggestions.

Clarifies his statement on the contraction of the bud-axis: did not mean to imply that this contraction occurred in an individual’s life-time, rather that it was the effect, after the course of ages, of successive favourable modifications.

Believes the true theory of phyllotaxy will give a convincing illustration and proof of the theory of evolution.

Author:  Hubert Airy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 July 1872
Classmark:  DAR 159: 17
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8414

To J. V. Carus   16 July 1872

Summary

Will send second proofs of Expression.

Glad JVC has finished translating Origin.

Assures him that Mivart’s book [On the genesis of species (1871)] has produced a great effect in England and America. CD has discussed incipient structures at some length because it enabled him to give many cases of gradation.

Asks JVC to note that he does not vouch for Expression’s being worth translating.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Julius Victor Carus
Date:  16 July 1872
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 84–85)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8415
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7 Suffolk St, London

Summary

Recommending Darwin

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Henslow is asked to recommend a naturalist to accompany Fitzroy, and Darwin is invited on the …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Galton, Francis 7 Nov 1872 Rutland Gate, London, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 7 Sept 1872 11 St Mary Abbot' …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the shape of an arch ( Movement in plants , pp. 96–7). As usual, staff at the Royal Botanical …
  • … my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later he wrote: …
  • … Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats have only just …
  • … the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was …
  • … are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very sweet & …
  • … to refuse,’ he wrote to William Spottiswoode on 7 July . Pinker later made a statue of Darwin for …
  • … generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the attempt to …
  • … from a person unknown to him. The benefactor wrote on 7 December : ‘I consider that you, more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to …
  • … folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He particularly …
  • … to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7 chapters ready for press & all others …
  • … bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After sending the …
  • … and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott’s …
  • … of real improvement in health’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). All the children …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin and his correspondents. First note [after 7 April 1838][1] Work finished …
  • … near Regents Park—keep horse—take Summer tours Collect[7] specimens some line of Zoolog: …
  • … on the three blank pages of the letter from Leonard Horner, 7 April [1838]. [2] Presumably CD …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and Thomas Henry Huxley that occurred during the Saturday, 7 July, meeting of Section D (zoology and …
  • … preceded by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the …
  • … uncommonly lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter 31 July–7 August 1873 also tackled the issue of hair …
  • … \quite white\ (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, & if he …
  • … can make several parts clearer,’ Darwin reiterated on 7 November , ‘I believe (though I hope I am …
  • … ancestry. ‘You know better than anybody’, he wrote on 7 January , ‘how infinitely great is the …
  • … the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max Müller and …
  • … Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the public in this way ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 May 1863] , and Appendix VII). He also …
  • … [1863] , and letter from Julius von Haast, 21 July [–7? August] 1863 ). Darwin was subsequently …
  • … paper with satisfaction ( see letter to John Scott, 7 November [1863] ). Scott had referred …
  • … he could send him to the war ( see letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1863 ). Darwin shared this letter …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … (1) Asher, G. M. (7) Ashley, Miss (1 …
  • … (4) Aubertin, J. J. (7) Aussant-Carà, Paul …
  • … (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) Axon, W. E. A. …
  • … (16) Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John …
  • … (36) Baxter, William (7) Baynes, H. M. …
  • … (1) Blair, R. A. (7) Blair, R. H. (4 …
  • … (3) Boott, Francis (7) Boott, Mary …
  • … (1) Chambers, Robert (7) Chance, Frank …
  • … (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) Clarke, T. W. …
  • … (6) Darwin, V. H. (7) Darwin, Violetta …
  • … (1) Dowie, Annie (7) Down Friendly Society …
  • … (2) Farr, William (7) Farrar, F. W. …
  • … (28) Fitzgerald, R. D. (7) Fitzmaurice, Edmond …
  • … (2) Forel, Auguste (7) Forster, L. M. …
  • … (3) Gordon, George (b) (7) Goschen, G. J. …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nature and religion. Date of interview: 7 August 2008 Transcription …
  • … Randal Keynes: Yes. 7. How, and what, do we know of Darwin's opinions …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie …
  • … 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • … de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] contains all his fathers views Quoted by …
  • … 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, 1832–36. £1 7 s . 25  [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire …
  • … of Agriculture by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. …
  • … Vestiges of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which …
  • … Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of Australia [Gould 1848]; …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … 1849] (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has …
  • … Gresly Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris …
  • … Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays [Lindsay 1849] …
  • … Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. Abercrombie on the …
  • … ] Oct 3 Lavater’s Phisiognomy [Lavater 1806–7] Malthus on Population [Malthus 1826] …
  • … added notes from 2 d  Edit [Holland 1840].— Feb 7 th . Lord Brougham Dissertation …
  • … 1687 to 1766 inclusive, and from beginning to 1674 7 th  Skimmed Burn’s Poems [Burns 1786]. …
  • … Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1— to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol …
  • … S. Romilly’s Memoirs [Romilly 1840]. moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] …
  • … marriage [S. E. Ferrier] 1824 and 1818].— 18 th . 7 th  & 8 th . Vol of Hume’s …
  • … Essays [Bacon 1825–36]— dull, & crabbid style May 7 th  Skimmed a little of Tucker’s …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘almost indispensable’ ( letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s …
  • … meet the local celebrity, John Ruskin. Marshall wrote on 7 September that Ruskin, the day after …
  • … dogma’, Mary Jung, a young Austrian woman, wrote on 7 January . ‘When my reason agrees with your …
  • … be an atheist, Darwin told the clergyman John Fordyce on 7 May , ‘It seems to me absurd to doubt …
  • … work in such an outstanding way’, Würtenberger wrote on 7 February , after receiving £100 from …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … The power of movement in plants , published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work …
  • … the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). While  Climbing plants …
  • … turgescence and growth ( letter from Hugo de Vries, 7 August 1879 ). Darwin replied, ‘ I thank …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and letter to Ernst Krause …
  • … study to public-school pupils ( letter to Francis Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis …
  • … B. Buckley, 31 October [1880] ). Buckley reported back on 7 November : ‘At first he hesitated …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as if confessing a murder. DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have been …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did …
  • … to break through the trammels.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  7 March [1852] ). A more modern and …
  • … for a game of Billiards’. (Darwin to his son William,  7 July [1859] ). Whole family outings were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter …
  • … undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis was also drafted into …
  • … desire to penetrate Truth’ ( letter from Ernest Faivre, 7 April 1868 ). Armand de Quatrefages, who …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … taking a clear position on the transmutation of species. 7 Later, he wrote to Lyell himself, …
  • … 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence vol. 11, letter …
  • … vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence …
  • … 14, doc. 183–4). 15. Letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 March 1865, in BL MSS ADD 49641. …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the upper regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude …
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