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Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 28 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • by people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . Demand continued
  • promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were
  • first two printings, Darwin wrote to Murray on 20 March 1871 , ‘It is quite a grand trade to be a
  • in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19 February 1871 ). The African explorer and
  • pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). The geologist William Boyd Dawkins
  • to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). Thomas Henry Huxley marvelled that
  • tide-marks!’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 February 1871 ). Asa Gray remarked, somewhat
  • and the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples
  • is a thing which I sh d  feel very proud of, if anyone c d . say of me.’ After the publication
  • liberal or orthodox. The American philosopher and journalist Francis Ellingwood Abbot incorporated
  • was achieved throughthe medium of opinion, positive law &c’, and transmitted by culture, not
  • man & we were the best of friends’, he wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . However, …
  • in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21
  • Darwin had been receiving regular reports from his cousin Francis Galton on the progress of
  • in order to facilitate cross-circulation ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • so giddy I can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23
  • annually on an acre of land at 16 tons (letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [20 November 1871] ). He also
  • science ( letter to Horace Darwin, [15 December 1871] ). Francis was now studying medicine at St
  • of Trinity College, planned a trip to America, and invited Francis and two Cambridge friends. Darwin
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 July [1871] , letter to S. R. S. Norton, 23 November [1871] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • of man and selection in relation to sex , published in 1871, these books brought a strong if
  • on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July [1872] ). …
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12 February 1872 ). …
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • drawings shortly afterwards ( letter from Samuel Butler to Francis Darwin, [before 30 May 1872] , …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • the claims of spiritualists, and Darwin, through his cousin Francis Galton, had with some interest
  • you agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • however, incorporated in the second edition, produced by Francis Darwin after his fathers death. …
  • try `with straight blunt knitting needle’ ( letter to LCWedgwood, 5 January [1872] ) to
  • new name on the list of volunteers: by the beginning of May, Francis Darwin, the Darwinsthird son, …
  • to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 24 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect
  • ease of distribution sometime in late 1867 or early 1868. Darwin went over his questions, refining
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • and not the susceptibilities of a moral nature.” Darwin did not typically countenance such
  • the collection of information to its display in print. After Darwin received all of the replies to
  • nodding vertically Blair, R.H. 11 July
  • Fuegians Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870
  • Dyaks Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871
  • Chaumont, F.S.B.F. de 11 March 1871 Woolston, …
  • Crichton-Browne, James 3 April 1871 West Riding
  • blushing Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867
  • and S. Sutton Darwin, Francis [before 30
  • Donders, F.C. 28 March 1871 Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Foster, Michael 4 June [1871] Trinity College, …
  • letter from Mansel Weale Galton, Francis 7
  • Gray, Asa 14 April 1871 Cambridge, Massachusetts, …
  • Gray, Asa 10 & 14 March [1871] Cambridge, …
  • Mivart, G.J. 26 Jan 1871 North Bank, London, England
  • Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West
  • Reade, Winwood W. 1 Feb 1871 11 St Mary Abbot's
  • in Hottentots Smyth, R. Brough 13 Aug 1868

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 21 hits

  • evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost
  • … (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  (1876). Darwins son Francis became increasingly
  • career to become his fathers scientific secretary. Darwin had always relied on assistance from
  • the previous year. As was typical, readers wrote to Darwin personally to offer suggestions, …
  • some of which were incorporated in a later edition. Darwin also contributed to discussions in the
  • in animals. The subject was brought closer to home by Francis Galtons work on inherited talent, …
  • Station at Naples. Plants that eat and feel? Darwin had resumed experiments on the
  • 12 January [1873] ).  Drosera  was the main focus of Darwins study of insectivorous plants, a
  • and alkaloids, and even electrical stimulation. On sending Darwin a specimen of the carnivorous  …
  • Poisons and electrocution . . . His son Francis was assisting the histologist Edward Emanuel
  • of medical research in London. On the advice of Klein, Francis obtained a new microscope for his
  • on botany, he drew more on assistance from his son Francis. While visiting his fiancée, Amy Ruck, in
  • notes and take tracings of their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ). …
  • … [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for Francis to rent a house in the village (Down
  • without instruction or previously acquired knowledge” (A. R. Wallace 1870, p. 204). Moggridge
  • and inheritance when he was asked by his cousin Francis Galton to participate in a study of English
  • to encourage interbreeding among thenaturally gifted” (Galton 1873a). Darwin was sympathetic to
  • believes whether or not they are sound” ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 November 1873 ). But no
  • vicar, George Sketchley Ffinden, who had been appointed in 1871. Darwin had usually been on good
  • unorthodoxy, troubling and potentially undermining (J. R. Moore 1985, pp. 4712). A courted
  • a personification of Natural Filosofy” ( letter from J. C. Costerus and N. D. Doedes, 18 March 1873

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwins apparent confusion about Nägelis
  • … ‘purely morphological’. The modern reader may well share Darwins uncertainty, but Nägeli evidently
  • pp. 289). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide Darwin with botanical examples he could use
  • problems of heredity Another important criticism that Darwin sought to address in the fifth
  • now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • an injustice & never demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). …
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an
  • creation, if he is not completely staggered after reading y r  essay’. The work received a
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil
  • of concern were received for months afterwards. Francis Galton: Hereditary genius and
  • Emma read aloud from a new book by Darwins half-cousin, Francis Galton. The workHereditary
  • is an eminently  important difference’ ( letter to Francis Galton23 December [1869] ). …
  • of inheritance through experiments on rabbits ( letter from Francis Galton, 11 December 1869 ). …
  • the first to give me freedom of thought’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 24 December 1869 ). …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 26 hits

  • The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the
  • in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing
  • gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwins proposed election to the French
  • Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the
  • style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a
  • have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta
  • so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbes suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kants  …
  • … ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in his beard with
  • as animals: ears Despite Cobbes plea, most of Darwins scientific attention in 1870 was
  • fairy in Shakespeares  A midsummer nights dreamDarwin obtained a sketch of a human ear from
  • of a pointed tip projecting inward from the folded margin. Darwin, who had posed for the sculptor in
  • this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolners sketch in  …
  • furrows radiating on the side of the neck of his son Francis when he was playing the flute. …
  • who sent a sketch of a babys brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to
  • … (in retrograde direction) naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). …
  • essays (later revised as  Genesis of species (Mivart 1871)), Mivart tried to carve out a position
  • Darwin received a string of letters from his cousin Francis Galton, reporting on his efforts to
  • by breaking adjacent veins into one’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 25 June 1870 ). Occasionally
  • the latest litters has a white forefoot’  ( letter from Francis Galton, 12 May 1870 ). But in
  • Bruce, about the possibility of inserting a question in the 1871 census about cousin marriage. …
  • an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you Francis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 18 October [1870] ). …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those
  • a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of
  • women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the
  • and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • it had been proofread and edited bya lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862
  • typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin, [25 March 1871] Mary Bathoe responds
  • Letter 7644 - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, …
  • 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood offers
  • 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] The poet Emily Pfeiffer
  • Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] Sarah Hennell writes to Darwin
  • in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …