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Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 16 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of …
  • … process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection was ‘the …
  • … and his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that …
  • … and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ). My book is horribly …
  • … to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such …
  • … it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not …
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was …
  • … a scamp & I begin to think a veritable ass’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 September [1868] ). …
  • … April 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed …
  • … of thanks to the naturalist and customs offcial John Jenner Weir for a paper on apterous Lepidoptera …
  • … collection of materials on sexual selection, and he asked Weir to ‘call to mind any facts bearing on …
  • … Row who was a great authority on the ‘London fancy’. Weir received a ‘Newgate cut’ and much …
  • … added, ‘for it is clear that I have none’ ( letter to J. J. Weir, 30 May [1868] ). Sexual …
  • … role of colour, sound, and smell in attracting females. J. J. Weir reported on 14 April 1868
  • … of Hooker’s distributed it in Japan ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 5 September 1868 ); Edward Wilson, …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 28 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect
  • for ease of distribution sometime in late 1867 or early 1868. Darwin went over his questions, …
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • in Ceylon, wrote the botanist George Thwaites on 22 July 1868 , “all endeavour to drill their
  • Scottish botanist John Scott wrote from Calcutta, 4 May 1868 : “Shame isexpressed by an
  • nodding vertically Blair, R.H. 11 July
  • in the blind Bowker, J.H. [10 Dec 1867] …
  • Fuegians Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870
  • Dyaks Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871
  • Bulmer, J 13 Aug 1868 [Gipps Land, nr. Flemington? …
  • Bunnett, Templeton 13 Aug 1868 Echuca, Australia
  • Darwin, W.E. [after 29 March 1868] Chester Place, …
  • Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England
  • forwarded by Muller Haast, J.F.J. von 12
  • he forwards it to Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec
  • Lake Wellington, Australia letter to F.J.H. von Mueller nodding, …
  • of baby's tears Hooker, J.D. 5 Sept
  • Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West
  • expressions Rothrock, J.T. 31 March 1867
  • in Hottentots Smyth, R. Brough 13 Aug 1868
  • New Zealand) forwarded to CD by J.F.J. von Haast Maoris
  • respond to query Weale, J.P.M. 7 July 1867
  • Kafir, Hottentot Weale, J.P.M. [10 Dec
  • Kaffirs Weale, J.P.M. 23 Oct 1868
  • Kafir girls Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] …
  • … "brown study" Weir, J.J. 27 June

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868] Darwin asks Thomas Huxley to
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin thanks Hooker for
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] Darwins nephew, Edmund, …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Letter 6139  - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [22 April 1868] Doubleday responds to Darwins
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] …
  • Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February 1849] …
  • …  - Henslow, G. to Darwin, [11 November 1865] J. S. Henslows son, George, passes on the
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Men: Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and
  • at the University of Bonn. Letter 6046  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …
  • Expression . Letter 6046  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 16 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, R. W., [31 August 1831] Darwin
  • professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 & 26
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., [20 February 1840] …
  • of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] Darwin
  • Published in GardenersChronicle , Darwin asks M. J. Berkeley to identify microscopical
  • pleasure. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin
  • of them into his bedroom. Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [20 April 1864] …
  • his life to science. Letter 4472 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [26 or 27 April 1864] …
  • Letter 6044 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H., [24 March 1868] Darwin relays his discussion with
  • help shape his sonsfortunes. Letter 6046 - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …
  • Letter 6139 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [22 April 1868] Doubleday details his experiments
  • Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] Darwins nephew, Edmund, …
  • on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 25 hits

  • The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the
  • in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing
  • gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwins proposed election to the French
  • Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the
  • style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a
  • have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta
  • so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbes suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kants  …
  • the folded margin. Darwin, who had posed for the sculptor in 1868, an experience he described as
  • for the drawing ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to J. D. Hooker, 26 November [1868] ; this
  • who sent a sketch of a babys brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to
  • … (in retrograde direction) naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). …
  • … & valuable labours on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also
  • Ape differs from a lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart
  • whatever may have been hisorigin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his
  • than I could a ball at Buckingham Palace’ ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 30 June [1870] ). …
  • and foetus during pregnancy. As a case in point, John Jenner Weir described the offspring of a mare
  • persons long married grow like each other’ ( letter from J. J. Weir, 17 March 1870 ). …
  • in Bastians solutions of the same kind’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 July [1870] ). Bastians
  • to be thus killed by a man of 86’  ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 25 May [1870] ). On learning of this, …
  • do, I know no more than the man in the moon’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 25 May [1870] ). …
  • not entirely participated in this feeling’  ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 August 1870 ). Carus

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • …  vol. 16, letter to W. D. Fox, 12 December [1868] ). He may have resented the interruption to his
  • Well it is a beginning, & that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). …
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • blunders, as is very likely to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker
  • now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and
  • while Roland Trimen in South Africa and John Jenner Weir in London sent more information on male and
  • males & females, cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet
  • … & contemptalmost hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • an injustice & never demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). …
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • on the German translation of  Variation  (Carus trans. 1868). The French translation proved
  • … [her] to translateDomestic Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by
  • the French edition of  Variation  (Moulinié trans. 1868), and CD now extended his permission for
  • Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an
  • creation, if he is not completely staggered after reading y r  essay’. The work received a
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil
  • Scientific Opinion , launched towards the end of 1868, was one of several periodicals begun in
  • suggestions to its publisher, Macmillan ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 14 November 1869 ).  Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 27 hits

  • …   Charles Darwins major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  …
  • couple of months were needed to index the work, a task that Darwin handed over to someone else for
  • and animals  ( Expression ), published in 1872. Although Darwin had been collecting material and
  • A global reputation The importance of Darwins network of correspondents becomes vividly
  • who might best answer the questions, with the result that Darwin began to receive replies from
  • Variation  would be based on proof-sheets received as Darwin corrected them. Closer to home, two
  • Charles Fleeming Jenkin, challenged different aspects of Darwins theory of transmutation as
  • orchids are fertilised by insects  ( Orchids ). While Darwin privately gave detailed opinions of
  • capable hands of Alfred Russel Wallace. At the same time, Darwin was persuaded by some German
  • were becoming counterproductive. Throughout the year, Darwin continued to discuss now
  • in Germany, and Federico Delpino in Italy, who provided Darwin with the collegial support and
  • tedious dull workThomas Henry Huxley sent Darwin the New Years greeting, ‘may you be
  • at what rate your work will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This hint of
  • to introduce the work to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). Darwin may
  • translate my book in preference to you’ ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 April [1867] ). Darwin was not
  • attack it & me with unparalleled ferocity’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 17 November [1867] ). …
  • see your second volume onThe Struggle for Existence &c.” for I doubt if we have a sufficiency
  • … “supplemental remarks on expression”’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [1217] March [1867] ). Darwins
  • derived from Asa Grays printed queries, was published in 1868 in the  Annual Report of the Board
  • the colours were protective and suggested that John Jenner Weir might conduct experiments in his
  • level. In his response to Wallace ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 26 February [1867] ), Darwin defended
  • to the work I shall find it much better done by you than I c d  have succeeded in doing’ ( letter
  • had read it and whether it was worth reading ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 4 February 1867 ). In a
  • I have not a word to say against it but such a view c d  hardly come into a scientific book’ ( …
  • Wallace published a long article, ‘Creation by law’ (A. R. Wallace 1867c), which responded to Jenkin
  • judgement he would subdue; that is yours’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin
  • work itself.’  Variation  was published on 30 January 1868. …