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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 …
  • … of an angry pig and her niece’s ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, …
  • … Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … (3) Alglave, Émile (8) Alice (2) …
  • … (1) Ansted, D. T. (8) Anthropological Society, …
  • … (2) Bence Jones, Henry (8) Beneden, Édouard …
  • … (2) Blackley, C. H. (8) Blackwall, John …
  • … (1) Gould, John (8) Gower, W. H. (1) …
  • … Wedderburn, David (1) Wedgwood, C. S. (8) …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Gray. Re: Design toured Britain and America in 2007–8, shedding light on how Darwin developed …
  • … of a performance is available). This time Terry’s task was to bring some carefully selected …
  • … a long and full day at the microphone, resulting in Terry’s interpretations of 23 letters.  A …
  • … making observations, as exemplified by the letters to his Wedgwood nieces, Lucy ( [before 25 …
  • … written on 9 January 1882 , only shortly before Darwin’s death, about the equality of women and …
  • …  particular letters. How should one read Darwin’s politely worded rebuke to St G. J. Mivart ( 21 …
  • … a draft chapter of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication Vegetable
  • letters Letter 1113 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [2 September 1847] …
  • is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May
  • Lyell for advice on how to reference Arabella Buckleys observations of pigeons, which he planned to
  • received fromMiss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] …
  • final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • of a crying baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E. …
  • Henrietta, about how best to reference her husbands contribution to a chapter on music in
  • whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25
  • her editorial work on Expression . While her husband's contribution to the same work was
  • Drosera and Dionaea on his behalf . “Mrs. Treatscontributions to Darwins work are
  • relating to Earthworms Letter 7428 - Wedgwood, F. to Darwin, [4 January
  • activity in the fields of North Wales. Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H
  • discussion of earthworm activity . Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24
  • turf-based worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …
  • Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his niece, …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second half of
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to London, staying at his brother Erasmuss house.  …
  • August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that Clarks dietary treatment woulddo wonders’, but as
  • in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium
  • another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present
  • to get the two men on each side of him to hold each others hands, instead of his, ‘& that he
  • first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwins queries about the numbers of males and
  • Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical nature of Huxleys argument prompted him to add, ‘Put my
  • price of nine shillings, in line with Charles Lyells  Students elements of geology , and with
  • letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Darwin's son George had laboured hard on
  • and Edward Burnett Tylor. It included an attack on Georges paper as speakingin an approving
  • Mivart criticised both son and father, dismissing Darwins views on the development of language as
  • of man  ( Descent  1: 134). By interpreting Georges article as a defence of such immoral
  • As the authorship of the review became known within Darwins immediate circle, a bitter dispute
  • vol. 22, Appendix V and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781). Darwin first considered taking legal action over
  • much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had
  • of books in relation to the Origin, of which I have the M.S. half completed; but I have started the
  • Darwin replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration
  • for a Serbian translation of  Origin  ( letter from M. M. Radovanović, 17 September 1874 ), …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 26 hits

  • shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the tenor of his
  • …   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the emotions
  • and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • … , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new work, …
  • … , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of his legacy is
  • are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that
  • editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s. …
  • let alone the fifthPrinting of the proofs of Moulinié’s translation of the fifth English edition
  • This complex operation, combined with Moulinié’s increasingly poor health, led to yet further delay, …
  • … ). To persuade his US publisher, Appletons, to bring out the new edition in the United
  • be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further changes to
  • relations between them irretrievably break down. Mivarts book had been followed by a highly
  • a copy of an article replying to Thomas Henry Huxleys scathing review of  Genesis of species , …
  • philosopher Chauncey Wright. The republication of Wrights paper had been arranged by Darwin himself
  • felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwins
  • to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  Darwin's theories under siege The whole
  • German zoologist Anton Dohrn on 3 February that Mivarts book had 'produced a great effect in
  • Riviere, about drawings of a hostile dog, show Darwins attention to detail: `the hairs on the neck
  • by a family friend, Eleanor Bonham-Carter, and Darwins social network also led to an introduction
  • Butler, son of an old Shrewsbury schoolfellow of Darwins, and grandson of Darwins former
  • than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and invited
  • and Butler, at this stage a willing contributor to Darwins cause, wrote offering Arthur Mays
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • others described the way their hands blushed (letter from MISnow, 29 [November 1872 or later] …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  Fox

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Charles Darwin’s daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 …
  • … within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwin’s letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • … reflect her concerns about the consequences of her father’s theories for religious belief, which he …
  • … discussed in the first entry and attended by Henrietta’s friend and relative Emily Caroline (Lena) …
  • … on the expression of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [1867–72], …
  • … barrister and lecturer in music at the London Working Men’s College, and they were married in the …
  • …  of results. 7 Then I emboldened myself to discover m. of Sno’s creed than I ever have done …
  • … be looked at in a purely physical point of view so may God’s influence. I suppose both are forces …
  • … the good of the sufferer? If we say my conviction of God’s watchfulness over me is so profound even …
  • … at fault in the outer world, how can we know that it is m trustworthy in the inner world. This view …
  • … wills are free? If these questions are hopeless Huxleys 8 advice is good—turn our eyes from …
  • … him— But what a tremendous thought: that I have the life’s happiness of a human soul in my hands— …
  • … Notes: 1 Edmund Langton was Henrietta’s cousin; his wife, Emily Caroline , was …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 & 26 February & 1 March 1832] …
  • … his two-month-old “animalcule of a son", William. Darwin’s roles as father and scientists were …
  • … the house immediately after a rain storm. Here, Darwin’s scientific investigation is inextricably …
  • … a fellow of Trinity would be far more useful in George’s pursuit of a profession. Gove maintained …
  • … experiments he is undertaking in his home to test Wallace’s theory that birds reject highly-coloured …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to …
  • … had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his original plan, …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s literary circles and an author of …
  • … Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote …
  • … by Owen’. John Edward Gray, a colleague of Richard Owen’s in the British Museum, agreed about the …
  • … Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwin’s ire still further: ‘he is a scamp & …
  • … of details and untoward examples even from Darwin’s inner circle of expert naturalists. The Swiss …
  • … provided by  Variation  for expanding Darwin’s network of informers proved very fruitful. On 1 …
  • … the breed ‘was no authority whatever’. Darwin’s reply opened the door to a long-running …
  • … cause of science.’ Darwin began to make an index of Weir’s correspondence in April, and by the end …
  • … of London, to raise the question at one of the society’s meetings. A lively debate ensued about the …
  • … other entomologists who had been present at the society’s meeting. Darwin circulated his query about …
  • … Fox, 25 February [1868] ). Yet a number of Darwin’s correspondents were doubtful about the …
  • … Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing …
  • … bird for which reason to please a mere naturalist!’ Weir’s brother, Harrison, later recounted his …
  • … natural selection: the debate with Wallace Darwin’s views on the role of sexual selection in …
  • … in a lengthy exchange about hybrid sterility. Darwin’s view had shifted since the early 1860s, and …
  • … following your argument.’ Darwin passed Wallace’s pages over to his son George, now a …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of letters on …
  • … May 1859] Darwin expresses anxiety over Hooker’s suggestion that his writing style might …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter …
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … range of evidence in order to raise questions about Darwin’s conclusions, in particular his …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslow’s daughter, Anne, responds to …
  • … The poet Emily Pfeiffer responds critically to Darwin’s theory of sexual selection. She has read …
  • … selection for debates over marriage. Since reading Darwin’s work a “flood of questions” have …
  • … of a woman’s natural thinking”. Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • … de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms …
  • … by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. read 1 st …
  • … letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the Molucca Sea [Kolff 1840] …
  • … 1854 Jan 15. Seeman’s Narrative of H.M.S. Herald [Seeman 1853]. Feb 6. Wallace …
  • … ou, iconographie de toutes les espèces et   variétés d’arbres, fruitiers cultivés dans cet   …
  • … augmentée d’un grand nombre de fruits, les uns échappés aux recherches de Duhamel, les autres …
  • … . Vol. 37 in Jardine, William, ed.,  The naturalist’s library . 40 vols. Edinburgh. 1843.  *119: …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … Darwin delighted in his role as grandfather to Francis’s son Bernard, occasionally comparing the …
  • … Sophy to observe the arching shoots of Neottia (bird’s nest orchid) near her home in Surrey: ‘If …
  • … 22 December [1878] ). Son abroad Darwin’s experiments on plant movement were …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was apparently matched by his …
  • … Anne Westwood, and the proud grandparents. Many of Darwin’s letters conveyed news of the boy. ‘All …
  • … faculties. He seemed to take special note of the child’s use of language and power of judgment. …
  • … own research on animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think …
  • … a young monkey, so as to observe its mind’? Darwin’s suggestion was seconded: ‘Frank says you ought …
  • … cases of animal intelligence were observed by Darwin’s correspondents. The German stamp-collector …
  • … younger generation of naturalists continued to find Darwin’s work inspiring. The geologist Sydney …
  • … into Greek. Theodor von Heldreich wrote from Athens on 8 February that the translator, a young …
  • … Association of Naturalists in September 1877, Darwin’s outspoken supporter Ernst Haeckel championed …
  • … Innes now recounted the words he had spoken in Darwin’s defence at a recent Church Congress in …
  • … of the existence of a God looked at through nature’s phenomena’ ( letter from James Grant, 6 March …
  • … to me too bad to throw a slur or doubt on another man’s accuracy without taking the smallest pains …
  • … critics through correspondence, George asked his father’s advice on publicly criticising a paper on …
  • … Samuel Haughton. ‘If I do write’, George worried, ‘I’m pretty sure to get in Haughton’s ill favour …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and botanical research …
  • … the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous review in …
  • … V). Darwin remained bitter and dissatisfied with Mivart’s attempts at conciliation, and spent weeks …
  • … of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of coming to …
  • … the publisher of the Quarterly Review , in which Mivart’s anonymous essay had appeared. ‘I told …
  • … feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, for he …
  • … The vivisection issue was a delicate one within Darwin’s family, and he tried to balance his concern …
  • … paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory and unfair in its …
  • … on 12 May, one week after a rival bill based on Cobbe’s memorial had been read in the House of Lords …
  • … on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : …
  • … medicine in London. Klein had assisted in some of Darwin’s botanical research and had visited Down …
  • …   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of physiology …
  • … of protoplasm. He added the details of Brunton and Fayrer’s experiments to Insectivorous plants , …
  • … I can say is that I am ready to commit suicide.’ Darwin’s despair over the revision process may have …
  • … ). In the event, the book sold well, and Murray’s partner, Robert Cooke, politely scolded …
  • … insects were observed in the field, and some of Darwin’s experiments on digestion were then repeated …
  • … about the same time. As was the case with some of Darwin’s previous publications, however, the …
  • … were finished. An elusive case Darwin’s attention seems to have been largely on …
  • … between the men in 1874, and this was enhanced by Romanes’s visit to Down House: ‘The place was one …
  • … remain one of the most agreeable and interesting of memory’s pictures.’ Though trained in zoology …
  • … to carry out experiments that might help confirm Darwin’s theory of heredity. ‘I am a young man yet, …
  • … Testing Pangenesis Experiments to test Darwin’s pangenesis hypothesis had been performed on …
  • … energy as yours almost always succeeds.’ ‘I’m afraid my letters smell of pitch,’ George replied on …
  • … between Whitney and Max Müller. In Descent 2d ed., pp. 86–8, Darwin had cited Whitney’s …
  • … of having made false statements,’ Darwin replied on 8 April . ‘This is conduct which a man does …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwin’s work for the boundary between animals …
  • … animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwin’s early observations of infants, family …
  • … Darwin                 Darwin’s most recent book, Erasmus Darwin , had been published in …
  • … generations. He continued to receive letters about Erasmus’s life and other bits of family history. …
  • … Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwin’s grandfather’s clerical friends, full of lively …
  • … the eagerness of the two learned divines to see a pig’s body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied …
  • … ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwin’s sons George and Leonard also continued to …
  • … been co-authored with Ernst Krause, whose essay on Erasmus’s scientific work complemented Darwin’s …
  • … Krause, 9 June [1879] ). The final text of the Krause’s essay did not mention Butler’s book …
  • … in the preface, where Darwin stated that Krause’s piece had been written in 1879 (before Evolution …
  • … to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). At the top of Butler’s letter, Emma Darwin wrote: ‘it means war …
  • … in earlier developmental theories, and in some of Darwin’s harsh critics, especially St George …
  • … Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwin’s Wedgwood nieces, Sophy and Lucy, were asked …
  • … We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ).      …
  • … Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis Galton, 8 April 1880 ). Darwin was queried about …
  • … of several close family members. Emma’s brother Josiah Wedgwood III died on 11 March. Like Emma, he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that …
  • … relatives with young families.[4] However, it was Darwin’s personal experience of fatherhood that …
  • … of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwin’s notes reveals, he closely observed the …
  • … The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwin’s character clearly perceived by Emma during …
  • … does that prove”.’[6] For in these notes, Darwin’s deep scientific curiosity transcends his obvious …
  • … just as he had earlier analysed his own childhood memories.[8] Yet, though the dissociation was …
  • … children. Darwin maintained his record of William’s development from the day of his birth, 27 …
  • … by five: George Howard, born 9 July 1845; Elizabeth, born 8 July 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; …
  • … of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwin’s attention on William and Anne, she noted …
  • … until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwin’s later entries, like Emma’s, focus on the …
  • … movement which causes hiccough.— 2  At his 8 th  day he frowned much. & I believe …
  • … during first fortnight at sudden sounds. & at Emma’s moving 3 [11]  When one month …
  • … also just at the same period or a few days earlier— Nov. 8[16] When seven weeks old, his eyes …
  • … taking breath after each scream approaches it.— 8  Between 11 & 12 weeks old in …
  • … when doing something disagreeable. say 50–60 days old 7 or 8 weeks old Continues occasionally …
  • … Feb. 17 7 wks  & 3 days 8 – 5 6 wks 8 – 4 …
  • … Oct 28 — 1 st  – 6 – 8         …
  • …       lb  8–”½oz     …
  • … Lizzy come & stay here. — Shant stay here. People say I’m man’s— stay in man’s room. Papa …
  • … answer) (indignantly)  I are . 44  Lenny. I’m a good boy you mustn’t thmack me now— …
  • … coming out of the drawing room rather indignantly “I’m so dull. There is only horrid beastly boys in …
  • … of CD’s queries about expression. [4] See Notebook M, pp. 53, 58, 96, Notebook N, pp. 37, 121 …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth …
  • … [6 September 1862] Claparède acknowledges Darwin’s approval of his review of Origin …
  • … March 1863] Darwin secretly passes on Henrietta’s insightful comments on Lyell’s …
  • … Jnr. seeks Darwin-family support for Elizabeth Garrett’s candidacy for the position of Professorship …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …
  • … selection for debates about marriage. Since reading Darwin’s work a “flood of questions” have …
  • … to as such questions “seem almost out of a woman’s natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - …
  • … L., [18 October 1881] Darwin advises his niece’s friend, Mrs Forsyth, on how best to …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can …
  • … century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were Christian, …
  • … implications of his theory for religion in general. Darwin's name was also appropriated by …
  • … Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] Darwin writes to Gray about his review …
  • … constant watching of an intelligent ‘chooser’ like man's selection to which you so often …
  • … chance” but has horrid doubt whether convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from lower …
  • … Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive position …
  • … to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious doubts. She fears his work …
  • … 18 Nov 1859 Clergyman Charles Kingsley judges Darwin’s book [ Origin ] free from two …
  • … of the book and how he instead “humbly accepts God’s revelation of himself both in His works & …
  • … whether Darwin believes natural selection obviates man’s ability to be guided by spiritual motives. …
  • … Darwin believes he is unable to answer Mary Boole’s questions about religious implications of …
  • … it is safest to believe that the subject is beyond man’s intellect, “but man can do his duty”. …
  • … to Physician E. B. Aveling that the publication of Aveling’s remarks on his writings requires no …
  • … of thought is best promoted by gradual illumination of men’s minds produced by advance of science. …
  • … collection of letters, written after the Duke of Argyll’s address to the Royal Society of Edinburgh …
  • … to Lyell, Charles, 22 Jan [1865] Darwin writes to King's College, London Professor of …
  • … school teacher and writer James Shaw praises Darwin’s theory. He believes beauty in nature is caused …
  • … Society on 6 February. In it Shaw defends Darwin’s account of Beauty against the Duke of Argyll’s …
  • … Kingsley writes to Darwin criticising the Duke of Argyll’s book [ Reign of law (1867)], …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It …
  • … into this complicated relationship throughout Darwin’s life, as it reveals his personal and …
  • … and various dissenting establishments. In the Darwin and Wedgwood households, formal adherence to …
  • … (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwin’s parents attended a Unitarian chapel …
  • … A nominal adherence to the Anglican Church’s teachings was still essential for admittance to many of …
  • … necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwin’s lifetime, the vast majority of the …
  • … with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwin’s Cambridge mentor, John Stevens Henslow, …
  • … clergymen naturalists. A nostalgic piece in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine described the early …
  • … on every side his own snug ivy-covered house’ (Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). …
  • … to Caroline Darwin, 25–6 April [1832] ). Darwin’s sisters were extremely supportive of his desire …
  • … (letter to W. D. Fox, [9–12 August] 1835 ). Darwin’s doubts about orthodox belief, and his …
  • … went dutifully to the local Anglican church of St Mary’s each Sunday. All the children were baptised …
  • … their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwin’s brother Erasmus, Emma’s sister Sarah, …
  • … of the letters highlighted in this section focus on Darwin’s long-standing relationship with the …
  • … end of his life Innes refused to be persuaded by Darwin’s theory of evolution, but nevertheless …
  • … he administered from 1848 to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May 1848] and n. 2). Darwin praised …
  • … It was to the Darwins that Innes entrusted the family’s dog, Quiz, when he moved away from Down …
  • … 1871 ). Indeed Innes had such a high opinion of Darwin’s character that he claimed in 1878 to have …
  • … expression of confidence from a man who admired Darwin’s work and scruples, even if he was never …
  • … some of the difficulties that arose following Innes’s departure. In Innes’s absence, Down …
  • … Innes informed Darwin that though he ‘heard all good of M r . Ffinden’s moral character, his …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • … Lodge with his wife, Amy, had settled in as his father’s botanical assistant, and their close …
  • … concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, echoing Darwin’s own …
  • … of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amy’s child expected in September. Their joy …
  • … to William on 11 September just hours after Amy’s death. For once, the labour of checking proofs …
  • … dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began …
  • … Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of the …
  • … not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Carus’s meticulous correction of errors in the German …
  • … in an anonymous article, which impugned not only George’s but also Darwin’s respectability (see …
  • … that Mivart still had the capacity to damage George’s reputation. ‘I care little about myself but Mr …
  • … the still raw memory of this incident that underlay Darwin’s heartfelt thanks to Wallace for his …
  • … Darwin hoped not only to remove any stain on Lankester’s scientific reputation, but also to save the …
  • … 29 January 1876 ). Both aims were achieved, and in Darwin’s view, the five votes against Lankester …
  • … action to take. Burdon Sanderson was keen for the society’s secretary, George Romanes, to write …
  • … with him on the subject, this did not affect Darwin’s pragmatic summing up of the situation: ‘It …
  • … be wondered at—Nature in all her contrivances,—or man’s mind, able to investigate them to such …
  • … in a ‘remarkable manner’ by replicating Darwin’s experiments. In contrast, the German physiologist …
  • … amendments to his results ( letter from Moritz Schiff, 8 May 1876 ). Pangenesis v. …
  • … but in his case in the hope of confirming Darwin’s views on heredity as expressed in the pangenesis …
  • … date of 1875), Darwin must have been gratified by Romanes’s response to the heavily revised chapter …
  • … anxious than ever to get positive results in this year’s experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, …
  • … the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel. Opposing Darwin’s views for the first time, Haeckel had …
  • … on to newly formed plastidules. Darwin thought Haeckel’s essay ‘clever & striking’, but wondered …
  • … In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in …
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