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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 17 hits

  • On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that heBegan by Lyells advice  writing
  • more for the sake of priority than anything elseDarwin was reluctant to squeeze his expansive
  • Natural selection . Determined as he was to publish, Darwin nevertheless still felt cautious
  • in his immediate circle were Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by
  • in London. Natural Selection Not all of Darwins manuscript on species has been
  • of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed aspects of
  • of pigeons, poultry, and other domesticated animals. As Darwin explained to Lyell, his studies, …
  • way before. ‘How very odd it is that no zoologist sh  d . ever have thought it worth while to look
  • to make my Book as perfect as ever I can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). …
  • than their lowland relatives. But a last-minute check with Hooker revealed that Darwin was mistaken: …
  • of calculation was wrong ( letter to John Lubbock, 14 July [1857] ). Darwin thought his results
  • experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden vegetables like
  • Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette  in October 1857, to be followed by a second notice in 1858. …
  • my  profound  experiments. Franky said to me, “why sh d  not a bird be killed (by hawk, …
  • bird had naturally eaten have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). …
  • and the preparation of his manuscript ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 1 May 1857 ) seem innocuous and
  • Lyell had pressed him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 18 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • of natural selection to his friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles
  • year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a part of
  • DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have beenengaged in a very presumptuous work
  • the opportunity I enjoyed of making your acquaintance at Hookers three years ago; and besides that
  • sheet of note-paper! DARWIN11   My dear HookerWhat a remarkably nice and kind
  • 22   Hurrah I got yesterday my 41st Grass! Hooker is younger than Darwin and Gray by
  • the Origin of Species…’ FOUNDATIONS OF FAITH: 1857-1858 In which Gray and Hooker
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848
  • JUNE 1855 20  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 1 JANUARY 1857 21  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, …
  • MARCH 1862 35  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 1 JANUARY 1857 36  A GRAY TO C DARWIN
  • C DARWIN, 1819 AUGUST 1862 149 C DARWIN TO J. D. HOOKER 26 JULY 1863 150

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 20 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • for evaluation, and persuaded his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker to comment on a paper on  Verbascum
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • committed suicide at the end of April; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic
  • thriving, and when illness made work impossible, Darwin and Hooker read a number of novels, and
  • the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin
  • kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] ). However, …
  • griefs & pains: these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). …
  • Sic transit gloria mundi, with a vengeance’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1865] ). …
  • know it is folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • How to manage it , a love-story set in the Indian Mutiny of 1857 to 1858 ( letter to J. D. Hooker, …
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … tapping into the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … of face-to-face contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin …
  • … Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin writes a challenging letter …
  • … of the ephippium”, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 147 (1857): 79–100]. Darwin and Müller …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • The experiments were carried outat the suggestion of Dr Hookerand what little he has ascertained
  • 2055  - Langton, E. to Darwin,  F., [21 February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, …
  • Letter 2069  - Tenant, J. to Darwin, [31 March 1857] James Tenant, keeper of the
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). …
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwins life. From a quiet rural existence
  • Russel Wallace. This letter led to the first announcement of Darwins and Wallaces respective
  • the composition and publication, in November 1859, of Darwins major treatise  On the origin of
  • …  exceeded my wildest hopes By the end of 1859, Darwins work was being discussed in
  • his views of close friends like Charles Lyell, Joseph Dalton Hooker, and Thomas Henry Huxley, who
  • at the end of 1859, ‘I sometimes fancied that my book w  d  be successful; but I never even built
  • made on you (whom I have always looked at as chief judge) & Hooker & Huxley. The whole has  …
  • Charles Lyell, 25 [November 1859] ). This transformation in Darwins personal world and the
  • The 'big book' The year 1858 opened with Darwin hard at work preparing hisbig
  • completed his ninth chapter, on hybridism, on 29 December 1857, Darwin began in January 1858 to
  • the load of curious facts on record.—’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 31 January [1858] ). In addition to
  • on variation under nature. Having learned in the summer of 1857 that his method for deriving
  • the interpretation of the statistics was still problematic. Hooker thought that Darwin was wrong to
  • up. With some trepidation, Darwin sent his manuscript off to Hooker for his comments. Darwins
  • that all was much alike, & if you condemned that you w d . condemn allmy lifes work—& …
  • … ‘Your words have come true with a vengeance that I sh  d . be forestalled’, he lamented to Lyell. …
  • some time away. On 16 May [1858], he arranged a meeting with Hooker to discuss his manuscript on
  • with an abstract of his views sent to Asa Gray in September 1857. The correspondence between Darwin, …
  • his material would require asmall volume’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 October [1858] ). Begun
  • appropriated the others ideas (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 2 March [1859] , 11 March [1859] …
  • about the fine points of Darwins theory ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 May 1859 ). Among the
  • Priests at me & leaves me to their mercies’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 November 1859] ). …
  • it is impossible that men like Lyell, Hooker, Huxley, H. C. Watson, Ramsay &c would change their
  • young & rising naturalists on our side.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1859] ). …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Darwins work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed
  • … , it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwins species work. Yet when this study
  • anomalous. Moreover, as the letters in this volume suggest, Darwins study of cirripedes, far from
  • classification using the most recent methods available, Darwin was able to provide a thorough
  • such questions as yours,—whether number of species &c &c should enter as an element in
  • from common stocksIn this view all relations of analogy &c &c &, consist of those
  • organisms less complicated, as in Lernæa, (which I sh^d^ think was the strongest case known.^2^ …
  • as highness , then Lernæa a mere reproductive sack w d be higher; but this is too counter to
  • circumstances, (compare Plancental & Marsupial animals) w^d^ be similarly or parallely developed
  • metamorphoses, as we shall see presently in Hippoboscus &c  states that in Crust, antennæ & …
  • 1852) or elevating it to a separate class altogether (R. Owen 1855). Milne-Edwards and Owen also
  • as a distinct class between the Crustacea and the Annelida (R. Owen 1855).^7^ Darwin, however, with
  • to hermaphrodite cirripedes, for exampleDarwin informed Hooker of this interesting discovery and
  • animal, simple females alone being wanting. I never sh^d^. have made this out, had not my species
  • decisions on several occasions in his correspondence with Hooker. On 13 June [1850] , for example
  • objects cast in the same mould. Systematic work w^d^ be easy were it not for this confounded
  • Toward the end of his study of Balanus , in a letter to Hooker on 25 September [1853] ( …
  • … (if publishing avowedly on doctrine of non-permanence) I sh^d^. not have affixed names, & in
  • a high compliment when he touched upon this matter in his 1857 lecture on cirripedes. In his praise
  • and not an anatomist ex professo .’ (T. H. Huxley 1857, p. 238 n.).    While Darwins
  • spirits  Every cirriped that I dissect I preserve the jaws &c. &c. in this manner, which
  • of his theory of evolution can be recognised. Indeed, both Hooker and Huxley believed that the
  • about the award ( Correspondence vol. 5, letter from J. D. Hooker, [4 November 1853] ), Hooker
  • nos. 2118 and 2119, letter to T. H. Huxley, 5 July [1857] , and letter from T. H. Huxley, 7
  • CDs specimen has remained unique. (The editors thank Drs R. W. Ingle and G. Boxshall of the British

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v. …
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • Brown 1814] & at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read
  • on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. …
  • Teneriffe. in Pers. Narr. [A. von Humboldt 181429] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • He is Horticulturist in France. Michaux, according to Hooker has written on topography of N. …
  • … ]. many very useful papers for me:— not in Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise
  • … —— Mauritius & C. of Good Hope Hooker recommends order [Backhouse
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • 112 Jukes. “Students Manual of Geology” [Jukes 1857]— published a few years ago, good on
  • Lucas lHeredite Naturelle [Lucas 184750] 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami
  • Thackeray English Humourists [Thackeray 1853] 1857 Jan. Cockburn life of Selby [ …
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …