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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 25 hits

  • On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that heBegan by Lyells advice  writing
  • more for the sake of priority than anything elseDarwin was reluctant to squeeze his expansive
  • Natural selection . Determined as he was to publish, Darwin nevertheless still felt cautious
  • specialist in Madeiran entomology, Thomas Vernon Wollaston. Darwin also came to rely on the caustic
  • in London. Natural Selection Not all of Darwins manuscript on species has been
  • of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed aspects of
  • of pigeons, poultry, and other domesticated animals. As Darwin explained to Lyell, his studies, …
  • can William Bernhard Tegetmeier continued to help Darwin acquire much of the material for
  • on domestic animals in India and elsewhere. William Darwin Fox supplied information about cats, dogs
  • mastiffs. The disparate facts were correlated and checked by Darwin, who adroitly used letters, …
  • to make my Book as perfect as ever I can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). …
  • garden species with their wild congeners. Many of Darwins conclusions about the variation of
  • these chapters are not extant. It seems likely that Darwin used the manuscript when compiling  The
  • or lost during the process. Before the publication of Darwin's correspondence from these years, …
  • light on the role that these ideas were intended to play in Darwins formal exposition. …
  • selection could not act without varieties to act upon, Darwin wanted to know where, how, and in what
  • Making the fullest possible use of his botanical friends, Darwin cross-examined them on different
  • the alpine plants pretty effectuallycomplained Darwin in 1857 ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [2 May
  • of calculation was wrong ( letter to John Lubbock, 14 July [1857] ). Darwin thought his results
  • experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden vegetables like
  • Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette  in October 1857, to be followed by a second notice in 1858. …
  • …  not a bird be killed (by hawk, lightning, apoplexy, hail &c) with seeds in crop, & it would
  • find the work: am I not a kind Father?’ Darwin wrote in 1857, soon followed by the complaintYou
  • bad & not a stop from beginning to end!’ (letters to W. E. Darwin, [17 February 1857] and
  • and the preparation of his manuscript ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 1 May 1857 ) seem innocuous and

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwins
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Himalaya and Tibet. Letter 4139  - Darwin, W. E. to Darwin, [4 May 1863] …
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • detail. Family letter: Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma
  • 2055  - Langton, E. to Darwin,  F., [21 February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, …
  • Letter 2069  - Tenant, J. to Darwin, [31 March 1857] James Tenant, keeper of the
  • of his garden. Letter 4233  - Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, [29 June - 7 July 1863] …
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • and edited bya lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) …
  • over. Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • of the ephippium”, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 147 (1857): 79100]. Darwin and Müller
  • forms of address and acknowledgement. Darwin and W. B. Tegetmeier Letter 1751 — …
  • … . Letter 4260aDarwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • the University of Cambridge. These works, catalogued by H. W. Rutherford ( Catalogue of the library
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. Lawrence 1819] read Bory S t
  • 1822] Falconers remark on the influence of climate [W. Falconer 1781] [DAR *119: 2v. …
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • … [Dampier 1697] Sportsmans repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains much on dogs
  • of variation in animals in the different isl ds  of E Indian Archipelago— [DAR *119: 6v.] …
  • … & Rev. W. Herbert.— notes to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie
  • 2 vols. 8vo. avec 2 atlas 4to. ibid, 181823. £1 2 s  [E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 181823] …
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • 112 Jukes. “Students Manual of Geology” [Jukes 1857]— published a few years ago, good on
  • Lucas lHeredite Naturelle [Lucas 184750] 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami
  • Thackeray English Humourists [Thackeray 1853] 1857 Jan. Cockburn life of Selby [ …
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 23 hits

  • 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwins life. From a quiet rural existence
  • Russel Wallace. This letter led to the first announcement of Darwins and Wallaces respective
  • the composition and publication, in November 1859, of Darwins major treatise  On the origin of
  • …  exceeded my wildest hopes By the end of 1859, Darwins work was being discussed in
  • at the end of 1859, ‘I sometimes fancied that my book w  d  be successful; but I never even built
  • Charles Lyell, 25 [November 1859] ). This transformation in Darwins personal world and the
  • The 'big book' The year 1858 opened with Darwin hard at work preparing hisbig
  • completed his ninth chapter, on hybridism, on 29 December 1857, Darwin began in January 1858 to
  • appropriate. The correspondence shows that at any one time Darwin was engaged in a number of
  • The chapter on instinct posed a number of problems for Darwin. ‘I find my chapter on Instinct very
  • celebrated as a classic example of divine design in nature. Darwin hypothesised that the instinct of
  • of construction as it took place in the hive. As with Darwins study of poultry and pigeons, …
  • founder and president of the Apiarian Society, provided Darwin with information and specimens. His
  • For assistance with mathematical measurements and geometry, Darwin called upon William Hallowes
  • from the  Beagle voyage; on his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin; and his son William. Even his
  • on variation under nature. Having learned in the summer of 1857 that his method for deriving
  • for on this view wherever many closely related species, (i.e. species of the same genus) have been
  • myself that all was much alike, & if you condemned that you w d . condemn allmy lifes work— …
  • with an abstract of his views sent to Asa Gray in September 1857. The correspondence between Darwin, …
  • to Fox, ‘& I feel worse than when I came’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, [16 November 1859] ). It was
  • it is impossible that men like Lyell, Hooker, Huxley, H. C. Watson, Ramsay &c would change their
  • required a fresh act of intervention to supply the lacunas w h . he himself had made’ ( letter
  • got much more larky since we run two horses’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 6 October [1858] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 21 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • one looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • the subject & that must be enough for me’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • do when they are sitting at rest’ ( letter from S. W. Pennypacker, 14 September 1874 ). …
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … List of people appearing in the  photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in …
  • … Died just a few months after the album was sent to Charles Darwin at the age of 53 …
  • … Nat. Stud.  20 Leiden 1 January 1857 Leeuwarden 23 July 1904 …
  • … Phil.nat.stud 20 Leiden 2 October 1857 Amsterdam 24 August …
  • … Geologist, Economist an Darwinist. Corresponded with Darwin and translated The descent of Man in …
  • … Teacher   Nieuwendam 11 January 1857 Broek in Waterland   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … list of people that appeared in the  photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 …
  • … Phil. Nat. Stud.  20 Leiden 1-1-1857 Leeuwarden 23-07-1904 …
  • … Phil.nat.stud 20 Leiden 2 october 1857 Amsterdam 24 august …
  • … Teacher   Nieuwendam 11 january 1857 Broek in Waterland   …