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Darwin Correspondence Project

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List of correspondents


Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … (1) Alberts, Karl (4) Alberts, Maurice …
  • … (2) Allman, G. J. (4) Althaus, Julius …
  • … (1) Atkinson, Edward (4) Aubertin, J. J. …
  • … (1) Bailey, W. W. (4) Baillie, A. F. …
  • … (1) Bary, Anton de (4) Bashford, Frederick …
  • … (1) Behrens, Wilhelm (4) Beke, C. T. …
  • … (1) Bianconi, G. G. (4) Bibliogr. Inst. …
  • … (8) Blackwall, John (4) Blackwell, A. L. B. …
  • … (7) Blair, R. H. (4) Blake, C. C. (3 …
  • … (2) Broca, Paul (4) Broderip, W. J. …
  • … (1) Browne, Hugh (4) Browne, W. R. …
  • … (1) Canning, A. S. G. (4) Capes, Frederick …
  • … (1) Cardwell, Edward (4) Carlier, A. G. …
  • … (1) Chapman, John (4) Charles, R. F. …
  • … (2) Cheeseman, T. F. (4) Chemical supplier …
  • … (1) Chester, J. L. (4) Chiantore, G. …
  • … (2) Clark, J. W. (b) (4) Clarke, Benjamin …
  • … (3) Coan, T. M. (4) Cobbe, F. P. (13 …
  • … (2) Crotch, G. R. (4) Crotch, W. D. …
  • … (56) Dallinger, W. H. (4) Daly, J. …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … (14927) Darwin, C. S. (49) Darwin, Catherine
  • … Charles (2) Langton, Catherine (40) …

Darwin on childhood


On his engagement to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in 1838, Darwin wrote down his recollections of his early childhood.  Life. Written August–– 1838 My earliest recollection, the date of which I can approximately tell, and which must have been before…

Matches: 8 hits

  • On his engagement to his cousinEmma Wedgwood, in 1838, Darwin wrote down his recollections of his
  • my family, who were there.–– I remember either myself or Catherine being naughty, & being shut
  • seem to be connected most closely with self.–– now Catherine seems to recollect scenes, where others
  • is sufficiently odd, this difference in subjects remembered. Catherine says she does not remember
  • about that period, in the field opposite our House.–– [4]   1817. 8½ old went to M
  • After Sarahs death in 1815, it remained the residence of Catherine (Kitty) and Sarah Elizabeth
  • casesactually followsyet she . . . day,’ (3.3––4) in the manuscript, but the passage has been
  • 5662. A modernised transcription was published by Francis Darwin in More Letters of Charles Darwin. …



As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Earthworms and Wedgwood cousins As with many of Darwin's research topics, his
  • months before he died in March 1882. In the same way that Darwin cast a wide net when seeking
  • his nieces, Lucy and Sophy Wedgwood, the daughters of Emma Darwin's brother Josiah. Darwin
  • Scientific evidence for the history of life Darwin chose to study earthworms in order to
  • selection. His book Fertilisation of Orchids (1862) was Darwin's "flank movement
  • was a study of incredible empirical detail that demonstrates Darwin's creative experimental
  • … (be it geology or evolutionary theory) was a subject that Darwin had contemplated from his earliest
  • SOURCES Papers Darwin, C.R. 1840. On the formation of mould. Transactions of the
  • 385 - Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood & Josiah Wedgwood to Darwin, 10 November [1837] …
  • were fertilised. Letter 8137 - William Darwin to Charles Darwin, 1 January 1872
  • of stone at Stonehenge. In his reply of two days later, Darwin wrote, “Your letter & facts are
  • 8144 , 8169 , and 8171 - Between Charles Darwin and Lucy Wedgwood, January 1872
  • for her observations. Letter 12745 - Darwin to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October 1880
  • … , 15 October 1880] Letter 13406 - Mary Catherine Stanley (Lady Derby) to Darwin, 16
  • and its significance. Letter 13632 - Darwin to John Murray, 21 January 1882 In
  • magazine, Stephen Jay Gould argues for the importance of Darwin's last book and its centrality
  • his relationship to them through the correspondence? 4. What do you think of Darwin's

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest


The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 18 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwins American publisher for a
  • for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwins work was given by Hooker in an
  • frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwins sisters died, Emily Catherine
  • from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwins first letters in the new year
  • every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4
  • day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwins being teased by his neighbour, John
  • before the season is over’ ( letter from John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, …
  • in which he strenuously opposes the theory’ ( Origin  4th ed., p. xviii). Glacial theory
  • … ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical notebook (DAR 186: 43). His drawings of  C. scoparius , sent
  • is known on the subject’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 and 4 August [1866] ). And on the next day: …
  • he had sounded the charge’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [4 September 1866] ). 'Natural
  • provoking sombre thoughts. Darwins younger sister Emily Catherine Langton died in February, and his
  • in Shrewsbury after their fathers death in 1848 until Catherine married in 1863. Catherine had

Darwin’s reading notebooks


In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • editorsidentification of the book or article to which Darwin refers. A full list of these works is
  • page number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwins entry is to be found. The
  • published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to
  • 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. Lawrence 1819] read Bory
  • et anim: on sleep & movements of plants  £ 1 ..s  4. [Dutrochet 1837] Voyage aux
  • observations on increase & decrease of different diseases 4 to . 1801 [Heberden 1801] quoted
  • worth reading [Dampier 1697] Sportsmans repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains
  • Audubons Ornithol: Biography [Audubon 18319]— 4 Vols. well worth reading [DAR *119: 4v.] …
  • M me  Necker on Education [A. A. Necker 183943]— preeminently worth studying in a metaphys. point
  • Temminck. Monographs de Mammalogies [Temminck 182741]— Has account of variation in animals in the
  • have published Botany of N. America [Torrey and Gray 183843]. both indigenous & imported well
  • illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 183940] 24 FlourensResume analytique
  • Fellows Lycia (1 st  Travels) [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins
  • to Khiva  (James Abbott 1843). 48  Emily Catherine Darwin. 49  Almost
  • list of the books read by CD (DAR 120), which was begun by Catherine Darwin and continued by CD. …
  • … . 2 vols. London. [Other eds.]  119: 8a Gore, Catherine Grace Frances. 1838The rose
  • … . 2 vols. London. [Other eds.]  119: 22b [Marsh, Catherine M.]. 1858English hearts and
  • …   Franklin . London119: 23b [Spence, Catherine Ellen]. 1856Tender and true. A   …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles


Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Species theory In November 1845, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph
  • and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). What led Darwin to engage in this work when he was
  • group. Light is shed on the close relationship between Darwins systematic descriptive work and the
  • often frustrating taxonomical maze. Throughout these years, Darwin was also struggling with a
  • explained in detail in letters to friends and relatives, Darwin felt sufficiently restored in health
  • Nevertheless, it is evident from his correspondence that Darwins two hours at the microscope did
  • Phillips, and Daniel Sharpe, demonstrating the extent of Darwins continued involvement in
  • and naturalists, most notably James Dwight Dana, Henry Darwin Rogers, and Bernhard Studer, and the
  • In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwins particular queries and sends
  • British government in scientific research during the period. Darwin also contributed to these
  • scientific work of naval officers and travellers in general. Darwin was asked by the editor, Sir
  • zoology between them. Owen included in his chapter notes by Darwin on the use of microscopes on
  • the leading questions and wide views spelt out by Darwin in the Admiralty  Manual  are also those
  • Inverness, in which he maintained that the terraces, which Darwin believed to be of marine origin, …
  • of Glen Roy had produced a lake and the consequent beaches. Darwin carefully re-examined his own
  • editor of the  Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal , Darwin asked for it to be destroyed. Only the
  • … ). Other letters to colleagues at this time indicate that Darwin was beginning to feel that the Glen
  • 8 [September 1847] ). The second geological theory Darwin felt the need to defend had to do
  • that only a great rush of water could carry them up hills. Darwins response was to explain such
  • rocks and foliation in metamorphic rocks, on the other. Darwin maintained that cleavage was the
  • into a sessile, adult organism ( Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix II). One particular aspect of
  • affinities of the cirripedes ( Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix II). In some cases he felt he
  • and his daughter Susan. His unmarried daughters, Susan and Catherine, were guaranteed the right to

Darwin’s observations on his children


Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • marked lineopens mouth.,—closes eyes4  Six weeks & four days. smiled repeatedly, …
  • easily find his way to his mouth with his hand, when  4v . he wanted to suck. Annie at 2
  • … . 5 weeks & 3 days. 7 lb  – 10 4 wks 79½ …
  • …  March 1 st  1842Anny says Papa pretty clearly—[40A few days ago Emma gave her doll, but she
  • thGot on his legs on a open floorApril 15[41Jealous ofa dollfor last fortnight
  • appropriate expressions for their feelings31 [42In Jan ry . 1842 it was first
  • able to talk with fluency & it came on quite suddenly.—[43] On the 13 th . of March
  • March 18 th . On my return from Shrewsbury after 10[44days absence, Doddy appeared slightly shy, …
  • take a crust, when their pudding was finished.— Elizabeth[45remarked him careful politeness at
  • at the end of the section. [20CDs sister, Emily Catherine Darwin, who stayed with CD and
  • there is something wrong with CDs reckoning since Catherine arrived at Gower Street the day after
  • Emma Darwin. It was probably dictated by CD and written by Catherine Darwin during her stay at Upper

Scientific Networks


Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 17 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • of the species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray
  • of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • to the modern classification of insects (183940)] and it has reawakened his passion for
  • Letter 3139Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 4 May [1861] Tegetmeier sends some replies
  • flowers germinate in the anthers. Letter 4463Scott, John to Darwin, C. R., 14 Apr
  • why Hooker cannot recommend him. Letter 4468Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 19 [Apr
  • from D. J. Brown, an Edinburgh baker and geologist [see 4464 ]. Letter 4469 — …
  • butscientific horticulture”. Letter 4471Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 25 Apr
  • and heteromorphic crosses in Primula . Letter 4611Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 13
  • his interaction with scientific women. Letter 4170Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 18
  • He reports on his fathers health, as well as sister Catherines and his own. He also notes that

Race, Civilization, and Progress


Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Letters | Selected Readings Darwin's first reflections on human progress were
  • human progress or cause degeneration. In the "Fuegians", Darwin thought he had witnessed
  • several years earlier as part of a missionary enterprise. Darwin was struck by the progress that had
  • been returned to their native land. After the voyage, Darwin began to question the
  • After the publication of Origin of Species , many of Darwin's supporters continued to
  • or extermination of other peoples and cultures. When Darwin wrote about the human races and
  • on human and animal behavior accumulated over three decades. Darwin argued forcefully for the unity
  • and beyond. Letters Darwins first observations of the peoples
  • Cambridge, John Stevens Henslow. Letter 204 : Darwin to Henslow, J. S., 11 April 1833
  • wildness." Charles wrote to his sister, Emily Catherine Darwin, about witnessing
  • effect in the following year. Letter 206 : Darwin to Darwin, E. C., 22 May [– 14 July] …
  • polygenist theory of human descent. Letter 4933 : Farrar, F. W. to Darwin, 6
  • this a very strong argument for the Polygenist?" Darwin asked the English settler
  • of replies from the South African native, Christian Gaika. Darwin was impressed by Gaika's
  • of civilization of the natives. Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August
  • civilization" Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December 1867] …
  • Just prior to the publication of Origin of Species , Darwin discussed his views on progress in a
  • structure. This remained a point of dispute between many of Darwins scientific supporters, …
  • Alpheus Hyatt. In the last edition of Origin (1872), Darwin tried to clarify his position: &quot
  • … ( Origin , 6 th ed, p. 98). Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October
  • in all things." Letter 8658 : to Alpheus Hyatt, 4 December [1872] "I
  • which I have briefly discussed in the Origin." Darwin discussed the role of
  • the philosopher William Graham. Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October
  • races being exterminated." Letter 3439 : Darwin to Kingsley, Charles, 6 February
  • a unit, will have risen in rank." Letter 4510 : Darwin to Wallace, A. R., 28 [May
  • … & moral qualities. Letter 13230 : Darwin to Graham, William, 3 July 1881
  • Selected Readings Primary Charles Darwin, Notebooks, B 18-29; E 95-7 [ …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants


Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, forexperimental
  • hothouse early in 1863 marked something of a milestone in Darwins botanical work, since it greatly
  • …  vol5, letter to JD. Hooker, 19 April [1855] ). Darwin became increasingly involved in
  • Though his greenhouse was probably heated to some extent, Darwin found himself on several occasions
  • make observations and even experiments on his behalf. Darwins decision to build a hothouse
  • Hooker, 12 [December 1862] and n13). Initially, Darwin purchased for this purpose a glass
  • of 24 December [1862] ( Correspondence  vol10) Darwin told Hooker: I have
  • Encyclopedia of gardening  (Loudon 1835), a copy of which Darwin signed in 1841 (see the copy in
  • of heat’ (p1100). The latter was the sense in which Darwin used the word. The building of
  • accounts (Down House MS)). When it was completed, Darwin told Turnbull that without Horwoods aid he
  • … ). Even before work on the hothouse started, however, Darwin began making preparations to
  • plants’ (letter to JD. Hooker, 13 January [1863] ). Darwin apparently refers to the catalogues
  • whom he had dealt over many years. In his letter to Hooker, Darwin mentioned that he hoped to be
  • … (letter from JD. Hooker, [15 January 1863] ). Darwin agreed to send Hooker his list of
  • … (letter to JD. Hooker, 30 January [1863] ). Darwin probably gave his list of plants to
  • … [1863] ). On 20 February, the plants from Kew had arrived. Darwin was delighted, telling Hooker: ‘I
  • moss, peat, and charcoal (see the letter from Henrietta Emma Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin, [22
  • … (see letter from JD. Hooker, [6 March 1863] ). Darwin derived enormous pleasure from his
  • … (letter to JD. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwins aesthetic appreciation of the
  • the tropics. Even before he left on the Beagle  voyage, Darwin used the hothouses in the
  • old friends again’ ( Correspondence  vol1, letter to Catherine Darwin, MayJune [1832] ). …
  • told the botanist William Chester Tait that he had4 houses of different temperatures’ (letter to W
  • experiments (see, for example, A. de Candolle 1882, p495). The greenhouses were, according to
  • …     Canna Warscewisii4 2.6
  • counties  1862). 3.  Asclepias curassavica. 4.  Canna Warszewiczii. 5.   …
  • …     Myroxylon cleriesii 4   Flacourtaceæ 5 — …

Books on the Beagle


The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 16 hits

  • … from the unpublished zoological and geological notes in the Darwin Archive (DAR 29–38), a brief …
  • … is of four kinds: There are volumes now in the Darwin Library in Cambridge that contain …
  • … notes made by CD during the voyage. They are in the Darwin Archive in the Cambridge University …
  • … and symbols are used: DAR  —  Darwin Archive CUL  —  Cambridge University …
  • … , conveys the following information: CD’s copy, now in Darwin Libary–CUL, was used on board. The …
  • … 1 of volume 32 of CD’s geological diary (DAR 32.1) in the Darwin Archive. The copy in the Darwin …
  • … . 2 vols. Strasbourg, 1819. (Inscription in vol. 1: ‘C. Darwin HMS Beagle’; DAR 32.1: 61). Darwin …
  • … 26, 27, 28 . London, 1831. (DAR 31.1: 276v.; 33: 253v.). Darwin Library–CUL, 1832 Philadelphia …
  • … Zoologie . Paris, 1816–30. (DAR 30.1: 6, 12v.). Darwin Library–CUL. § Blainville, Henri …
  • … 2 vols. Paris, 1828. (Inscription in vol. 2: ‘Charles Darwin Rio Plata Aug 7 th . 1832’). Darwin …
  • … (Letter from J. S. Henslow, 15–21 January [1833]). Darwin Library–CUL. § Bougainville, Louis …
  • … 1824–25 . London, 1826. (DAR 31.2: 333; Stoddart 1962, p.4). Byron, John.  The narrative of …
  • … 20). ‡ Cuvier, Georges.  Le règne animal.  4 vols. Paris, 1817. (DAR 30.1: 29v.). Darwin …
  • … de.  Voyage autour du monde . . . 1817–20.  9 vols., 4 vols. plates, Paris, 1824–44. (DAR 32.1: …
  • … the Pampas and among the Andes.  London, 1826. (DAR 36.1: 469v.). Darwin Library–Down. ‡ …
  • … der Natur , 2d ed., 1826. 2 vols. Paris, 1828. (Letter to Catherine Darwin, 5 July [1832]). …