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Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health


On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 19 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the surgeon and naturalist
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • …  five years earlier. His primary botanical preoccupation in 1864 was climbing plants. He had become
  • … ( Correspondence  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The
  • …  produce tendrils However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down
  • …  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins excitement about his
  • … & therefore sacred’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Darwin's health


On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 20 hits

  • March 1849, ten years before  Origin  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker
  • Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to
  • See the letter At various periods in his life Darwin suffered from gastrointestinal
  • fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. In 1849, Darwins symptoms became so severe that he
  • for three months while he took Dr Gullys water cure. In Darwins letter to Hooker, he described Dr
  • See the letter After returning from Malvern, Darwin continued his hydropathic
  • 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861for example, Darwin used his delicate physiology to
  • Edward Wickstead Lane, and at Ilkley with Dr Edmund Smith, Darwin sought advice from his consulting
  • of a fashionable spinal ice treatment. In April 1864, Darwin attributed his improved health to Dr
  • gaining vigour .’ (letter to JDHooker, 13 April [1864] ) Why was Darwins so ill? …
  • vol. 12, letter to F. T. Buckland, 15 December [1864] ). On Darwins early stomach
  • vol. 4). Throughout the winter of 1863 and spring of 1864, he was sick almost daily (see
  • Chapman.  In a letter to J. D. Hooker, [20-] 22 February [1864] ( Correspondence vol. 12), …
  • 38, 47, 64). Fainting androckinghad been recorded in Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242) on several
  • sensationshas been found. On Darwins reliance on Emma Darwins companionship and care see, for
  • Hooker, 1 June [1865] and 27 [or 28 September 1865] . Emma or another member of the household
  • … , and Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, [28 August 1837] ). His
  • alive’. See also Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, 17 March
  • October 1863 (see Correspondence vol. 11, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December
  • of chalk, magnesia, and other antacids in March 1864 (see Emma Darwins diary, DAR 242, and n. 8, …

Women’s scientific participation


Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin thanks Hooker for
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • …  - Wright, Charles to Gray, A., [20, 25, 26 March & 1 April 1864] Charles Wright tells
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

Natural Science and Femininity


Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

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  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, R. W., [31 August 1831] Darwin
  • professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 & 26
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to
  • an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May 1860] Doubleday
  • borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] …
  • saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to GardenersChronicle, [2 July 1863] …
  • Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2 January 1864] Haeckel sends Darwin some
  • Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin thanks Hooker for
  • Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [20 April 1864] Hooker discusses the scientific
  • Letter 4472 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [26 or 27 April 1864] Hooker once again discusses
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex


The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 25 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual
  • … (Correspondence vol. 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwins theory of
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is
  • 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwins request, he modified his
  • the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from
  • blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January
  • as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • and descent in the  Fortnightly Review , and asked Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly
  • … ‘fast passing awaythat sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , …
  • authorship. John Murray thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would
  • of Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwins ire still further: ‘he is a scamp
  • all sorts of subjects In writing  Variation , Darwin had been careful to acknowledge
  • great influx of unsolicited letters from persons unknown to Darwin, offering additional facts that
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwins
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of

What did Darwin believe?


What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

Matches: 24 hits

  • What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of
  • rhetoric of crusading secularists, many of whom take Darwin as an icon. But Darwin was very
  • Letters became an important medium through which Darwins readers sought to draw him out on matters
  • the religious implications of his work. Letters written to Darwin by persons unknown to him became
  • own. Mary Booles letter In December 1866 Darwin received a letter from Mary Boole, a
  • after her husband, the mathematician George Boole, died in 1864. Dear Sir Will you
  • See the letter Boole, like a number of Darwins readers, found a way of reconciling the
  • with some form of religious belief. But when Boole asks Darwin about specific points of belief, such
  • See the letter In his response to Boole, Darwin implies that certain questions are beyond
  • Science, or by the so calledinner consciousness”’. Darwin does not dismiss different forms of
  • into such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma Darwin In what is
  • matters many years earlier with his cousin and fiancée, Emma Wedgewood. In their correspondence, …
  • but we gain a sense of what the couple discussed from Emmas words to him: My reason
  • It is clear from other correspondence that one of Emmas most cherished beliefs was in an afterlife. …
  • she means so in eternity. There is a marked tension in Emmas letter between reason and feeling, and
  • to himself, and allowed his differences of belief with Emma to remain for the most part submerged. …
  • members of the Darwin family, offer a fuller perspective on Emmas religious beliefs. The documents
  • over Scriptural or doctrinal authority, as a foundation for Emmas views. They also show that Emmas
  • was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who
  • Unitarian school in Shrewsbury. The circle with whom he and Emma socialised when in London included
  • were regular guests of Darwins brother Erasmus, and of Emmas brother, Hensleigh Wedgwood and his
  • liturgy. But we know, from Francis Darwins comments, that Emma used to make the family turn round
  • to recite the creed, with its Trinitarian formula. Emmas copy of the New Testament, …
  • writer. Wallace, Alfred Russel. Naturalist. Wedgwood, Josiah. Master potter and

Science: A Man’s World?


Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 11 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • of family, home and sociability. Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to Darwin, [6 September 1862] Claparède
  • are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] …
  • critic”. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2 January 1864] Haeckel
  • works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30 March 1864] Lydia Becker
  • of physiology at Bedford College for girls. Appealing to Emmasfeminine sympathies”, Cresy is keen
  • masculine nor pedantic”. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] …
  • … , (1829). Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written

Darwin and Fatherhood


Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten
  • an unusually large number of letters sent by members of the Darwin family to be studied. However, in
  • required them to work long hours away from their family. Darwin was unusual in being able to pursue
  • this part of Kent asextraordinarily rural & quiet’ (Darwin to his sister Catherine,  [24 July
  • left their children in the care of servants in the country. Darwin frequently expressed regrets that
  • meetings and social events in the capital. As a result, Darwin rarely spent a day without the
  • they employed eight servants including two nursery maids. Emma actively supervised and assisted with
  • … ‘visitsto see their father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). …
  • childrens development in diaries and letters. However, Darwin was unusual for the systematic
  • was far more typical of mid-nineteenth-century fathers was Darwins intense involvement in his
  • to incessant anxiety & movement on account of Etty.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox18 October [1860] …
  • daughter reveal (J. D. Hooker to Darwin16 September 1864 ). In addition to his fears for
  • … (Darwin to W. D. Fox10 October [1850] ) as he and Emma tried to choose suitable schools and
  • children in letters to friends, and the choices that he and Emma made were deliberately conventional
  • the age of twenty-six. This meant that in old age Darwin and Emma continued to share Down House with

Scientific Networks


Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • of the species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray
  • of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • Letter 4463Scott, John to Darwin, C. R., 14 Apr [1864] Scott thanks Darwin for his
  • Letter 4468Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 19 [Apr 1864] Darwin makes another plea to his
  • Letter 4469Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 20 Apr 1864 Hooker again refuses to help Scott, …
  • Letter 4471Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 25 Apr [1864] Darwin thinks his friend Kew
  • Letter 4611Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 13 Sept [1864] Darwin sends abstract of John Scott
  • Letter 4441Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 30 Mar 1864 Becker sends Darwin a copy of her
  • Letter 1176Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, Emma, [201 May 1848] Darwin writes to his wife Emma. …
  • Catherines and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments


The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 16 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwins transmutation theory continued to
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to submit his paper on
  • a sudden illness. Falconer was 56, almost the same age as Darwin himself. Falconer had seconded
  • to CDs theory of transmutation, in or before November 1864 ( Correspondence vol. 12, letter to
  • … ), and wrote up his results on his voyage to India in late 1864, despite suffering from sea-sickness
  • in learned societies and in the popular press. In December 1864, George Douglas Campbell, the duke
  • this and that modification of structure’ (G. D. Campbell 1864, pp. 2756). Campbell argued further
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …



Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … of each fragment at the base of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … conscientious doubts”. Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] …
  • … of Argyll’s address to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1864), Darwin used birds, flowers and …
  • … of Argyll’s address [to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1864)] on beauty and sexual selection. He …



Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the Beagle voyage. He was fascinated by the different sounds and gestures among the peoples of Tierra del Fuego, and on his return from the voyage he started recording observations…

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  • Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the …
  • … and sympathy, comparing the behaviour of humans and animals. Darwin's work on expression was …
  • … in 1872, it had been over thirty years in gestation. Darwin sometimes referred to expression …
  • … the project to a conclusion. At a particularly low point in 1864, he even offered all his material …
  • … more that I shd like to write but I have not strength '. Darwin persevered, however. He …
  • … to two volumes, and then so did Descent . By 1870, Darwin had amassed so much material that it …
  • … his marriage, he shared his interest in expression with Emma (then his fiancée), and asked her to …
  • … and their communications were often addressed either to Emma or her eldest daughter . 'I am …
  • … to comfort him '. Unlike the many men who contributed to Darwin's research, and whose …
  • … by name. While he was observing his children at home, Darwin was also studying expression in …
  • … out & purr '. Observations extended to caged creatures. Darwin requested his niece Lucy …
  • … make it scream without hurting it much? ' When in London, Darwin sometimes went to the zoo …
  • … of the oddest ever asked '. Another main object of Darwin's investigation was …
  • … and shake their heads horizontally to express dissent? '. Darwin continued to refine his …
  • … were able to distribute additional copies locally, so that Darwin's questionnaire reached …
  • … North and South America, and South Africa. Despite Darwin's precisely worded questions, …
  • … me more as the snarling contentions of cowardly dogs '. Darwin received one response from a …
  • … Gaika's replies, written out in English, so impressed Darwin that he remarked to his colonial …
  • … a truly wonderful fact in the progress of civilization '. Darwin's outlook was …
  • … the worse servant he is. ' Most of the overt racism of Darwin's correspondents was passed …
  • … between peoples were also erased. Such exclusions allowed Darwin to conclude more readily that …
  • … ancestral species. Another class of subjects whom Darwin thought were particularly important …
  • … the well-known alienist Henry Maudsley who forwarded Darwin's queries to his friend, James …
  • … to that of some animals when under threat . For Browne, Darwin's letters and the opportunity …
  • … '. On learning of Browne's interest in photography, Darwin lent him another set of …
  • … than the often exaggerated depictions of artists. When Darwin requested permission to use some of …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life


1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

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  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • life in Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emmas backgammon games. ‘I have won, …
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was neverthelessfirmly resolved not
  • meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the
  • was never far away in the Darwin family. In April, while Emma was suffering from a feverish cold, …
  • In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in
  • associated with a happy event. On 7 September, Charles and Emma became grandparents for the first
  • have heart to go on again . . . I cannot conceive Emma and Charles exhibited a practical
  • August to be with her daughter at the time of the birth, and Emma was unimpressed by her. ‘The more
  • word she says’, she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August
  • ability to console Francis after Amys death gained Emmas respect. ‘She is always able to speak’, …
  • of Darwins recently completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September
  • … & his wife (very pleasing) & a Prof. Romer came to lunch’, Emma Darwin reported to Leonard
  • from different forms of dimorphic and trimorphic plants in 1864 showed that hybrid sterility in

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions


There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

Matches: 11 hits

  • of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwins correspondence.  We have
  • start researching and writing an essay that centres on Darwins letters, narrowing the field to a
  • Why was correspondence so important for Darwin? How did Darwin encourage people he did not
  • material did letters contain? How much knowledge does Darwin assume when he writes to
  • and class, matter in scientific exchange? What does Darwin do when he wants to introduce a
  • internet today? Essay writing How was Darwins early species theory discussed
  • What ethical implications did readers draw from Darwins theories?[Mary Boole (1864), F. E. Abbot
  • on inheritance theory (pangenesis) (1870-1)] How did Darwin involve his family in his research
  • in letters? [Hooker on geographic distribution of species (1864--6 and earlier), Wallace on the
  • Gray (1861-8), Wallace (1869-70), Mivart (1871-4)] Did Darwin believe in progress? [Lyell
  • debates over design in the natural world conducted? [F. J. Wedgwood, Asa Gray, J. F. W. Herschel, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks


In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

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  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • editorsidentification of the book or article to which Darwin refers. A full list of these works is
  • page number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwins entry is to be found. The
  • in the bibliography that other editions were available to Darwin. While it is likely that Darwin
  • where we are not certain that the work cited is the one Darwin intended, we have prefixed the
  • mark. Complete or partial runs of journals which Darwin recorded as having read or skimmed
  • to the journal appear, and the location of abstracts in the Darwin archive and journals included in
  • 1833] (Boot) Leslie life of Constable [Leslie 1843]. (Emma) (read) M rs  Frys Life
  • Public Library. 3  ‘BooksReadis in Emma Darwins hand. 4  “”Traité …
  • 6  The text from page [1v.] to page [6] is in Emma Darwins hand and was copied from Notebook C, …
  • to old Aristotle.’ ( LL 3: 252). 10  Emma Darwin wrote7 thinstead of3 d “ …
  • 12  A mistranscription forEntozoaby Emma Darwin. See Notebook C, p. 266 ( Notebooks ). …
  • wroteTransactto replaceJournalwritten in Emma Darwins hand. 16  Emma Darwin
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
  • …  The text from page [1a] to half way down page [5a] is in Emma Darwins hand and is a copy of CDs
  • in ink by CD. 73  This entry was written by Emma Darwin. 74  “8 … …
  • 1855The senses and the intellect . London. [2d ed. (1864) in Darwin Library.]  *128: 165