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Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my
  • … & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and
  • to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, …
  • wants a grievance to hang an article upon’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [28 January 1880] ). …
  • one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). ‘The
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • Power of movement                 With Franciss assistance, the last of Darwins botanical
  • of the nervous system, and the nature ofsensitivity’. Francis Balfour described Movement in
  • pretended, ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of
  • the intake of stones and flints to aid digestion. He asked Francis to check for castings on old
  • the reasons, I should be greatly obliged’ ( letter from W. Z. Seddon, 2 February 1880) . Darwin
  • he added, ‘hardly anybody has accepted’ ( letter to W. Z. Seddon, 4 February 1880 ). On 16
  • rightly thought thequeer subjectof interest to Francis Galton, who had already taken thumb
  • aided in any way direct attacks on religion’ ( letter to E. B. Aveling, 13 October 1880 ). Finally
  • to the greatest biologist of our time’ ( letter from W. D. Roebuck to G. H. Darwin, 25 October 1880
  • his great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 20 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • he fretted, just days before his departure ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] …
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879 ). The year
  • to complete Horaces marriage settlement ( letter from W. M. Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). …
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • and he regretted going beyond histether’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and
  • survived the ordeal as his paper was published by Sachs in 1880. Family matters Before
  • travellerneither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125
  • … & that it was suppressed gout. Also how well off he wd be, w. is a matter of some consequence
  • to say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …
  • men of science quarrelled (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [6 September 1879] (DAR 219.1: …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The power of movement in plants , published on 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • about the nature of movement, so much so, that at one point Darwin had considered combining the
  • digestive processes. With his final great botanical work, Darwin would attemptto bring all the
  • emotions had their origins in non-human animal expression. Darwin had not done experimental work in
  • viewed the division between animals and plants as absolute, Darwin was interested in similarities. …
  • and illustrated Horaces machine in a paper (F. Darwin 1880, pp. 44955). Diagram
  • suggested by Darwins son William in February 1880, probably to replace FranksTransversal
  • … ‘ I am very sorry that Sachs is so sceptical, for I w drather convert him than any other half
  • to translate the paper into German, and it appeared in 1880 (F. Darwin 1880b). In the same letter, …
  • aslittle discsandgreenish bodies’ ( letter to WTThiselton-Dyer29 October 1879 ). …
  • that he had not been able to observe earlier ( letter to WTThiselton-Dyer20 November 1879 ). …
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwins
  • 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwins
  • Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • her nieces ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen
  • insects. Men: Letter 2221 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [22 February 1858] …
  • Letter 12389 - Johnson, M. to Darwin, [January 1880] Mary Johnson tells Darwin about her
  • 12745 - Darwin to Wedg wood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • 12760 - Wedgw ood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] Darwins niece, Katherine
  • Himalaya and Tibet. Letter 4139  - Darwin, W. E. to Darwin, [4 May 1863] …
  • Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis, reports on the appearance and
  • detail. Family letter: Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma
  • February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, writes to Francis with the results of his
  • of his garden. Letter 4233  - Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, [29 June - 7 July 1863] …
  • in his home. Letter 10517  - Darwin to Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin
  • and edited bya lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) …
  • over. Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 12 hits

  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • of a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to
  • made calculations about larger castings on poorer soils, and Francis helped with calculations
  • … . After a while, looking for earthworm casts became a habit; Francis noticed worm casts in fir woods
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • soul is absorbed with worms just at present!’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 23 November [1880] …
  • much bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] (CUL DAR

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] Darwin
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwins
  • in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868
  • Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May 1872] Darwin consults his
  • Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin thanks Henrietta for
  • Darwin, [4 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis Wedgwood, sends the results of
  • … [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, Horace and Francis, to observe earthworm activity
  • Letter 12742 - Darwin, H. to Darwin, [7 October 1880] Horace writes to his father
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin
  • 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] Darwins niece, Sophy, …
  • Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, W. E., [5 February 1881] Darwin discusses

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … | Selected Readings In Descent of Man , Darwin argued that human morality had …
  • … (Barrett et al. eds. 1987, p. 619) Darwin gathered observations over many decades on …
  • … Though rooted in instinctive sympathy, moral behavior for Darwin was not purely automatic or …
  • … the social instincts that humans shared with animals. Darwin's moral theory was the most …
  • … obligation, compassion, guilt, and the pangs of conscience. Darwin's theory was condemned by …
  • … female members of their hive in order to protect the queen. Darwin engaged with his critics in …
  • … of ideas, rather than as evolving from animal instinct. Darwin got clarification on this point from …
  • … Descent of Man in the Pall Mall Gazette (Morley 1871). Darwin admired the review, and …
  • … from generation to generation." Letter 7685 : Darwin to Morley, John, 14 April …
  • … at a time when Paris is aflame". Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March …
  • … that he read Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics of ethics . Darwin thanked her for the book, which …
  • … Letter 12610 : Preston, S. T. to Darwin, 20 May 1880 In correspondence with the engineer …
  • … Letter 12615 : Darwin, C. R. to Preston, S. T., 22 May 1880 "My conviction as yet …
  • … H. 1974. 'Early writings of Charles Darwin', in Gruber, H. E., Darwin on man. A …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 23 hits

  • The story of Charles Darwins involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It
  • unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwins life, as it reveals his
  • belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwins parents attended a Unitarian
  • the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwins lifetime, the vast majority of the
  • income was essential to enjoy a gentlemanly lifestyle. For Darwin, who could rely on the financial
  • compatible with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwins Cambridge mentorJohn Stevens
  • … (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). Darwin started on his journey around the world
  • it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 256 April [1832] ). Darwins
  • British Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] ). …
  • sort of scene I never ought to think about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [912 August] 1835 ). Darwins
  • from the late 1830s, and in correspondence with his fiancéeEmma Wedgwood, in 1838 and 1839, as can
  • within six years of his return from the  Beagle  voyage, Darwin moved to Down House, in the
  • where their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwins brother Erasmus, Emmas sister
  • of Emma, whose religious scruples are discussed here. But Darwins correspondence reveals his own
  • Although he was not the principal landowner in Down, Darwin was a gentleman of means, and clearly
  • made inroads on Anglican authority in the countryside. The Darwin family took an interest in, and
  • Many of the letters highlighted in this section focus on Darwins long-standing relationship with
  • To the end of his life Innes refused to be persuaded by Darwins theory of evolution, but
  • an excellent Guardian [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite
  • is an interesting letter from Darwin to the evangelist J. W. C. Fegan. Darwin whole-heartedly
  • in the village’ (letter to J. W. C. Fegan, [December 1880February 1881] ). Indeed, the Darwin
  • Victorian clergy. London: Croom Helm. Keppel, T. E. 1887. The country parson as he was, and as
  • Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter . Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 27 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwins scientific work diminished
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it
  • of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once
  • letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwins regret was profound that the
  • thebrutes’, but added that he would bring many towards Darwin who would have rebelled against
  • from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwins friend in the United States, …
  • off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin responded to Gray that Lyells and
  • or   Modification, ’. Faction fighting Darwin was not alone in feeling disaffected
  • in the subject. ‘The worst of it is’, Hooker wrote to Darwin, ‘I suppose it is virtually Huxleys
  • seen how indignant all Owens lies and mean conduct about E. Columbi made me… . The case is come to
  • this subject seems to get rarer & rarer’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 18 April [1863] ), …
  • for the Natural History Review  ( see letter to H. W. Bates, 12 January [1863] ). Darwin added
  • Copley Medal had been unsuccessful ( see letter from E. A. Darwin to Emma Darwin, 11 November [1863
  • on the bookcase and around the head of the sofa ( letter to W. E. Darwin, [25 July 1863], and
  • by them (see Correspondence vol. 11, Appendix IX). Francis Darwin later wrote of his fathers
  • was hidden by overgrown trees and shrubs ( see letter from W. D. Fox, 7 September [1863] ). Emma

People featured in the German and Austrian photograph album

Summary

Biographical details of people from the Habsburg Empire that appeared in the album of German and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes Mattes for providing these details and for permission to make his…

Matches: 8 hits

  • in the album of German and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are
  • p. 9. N.N.: Die Spielhölle in der Kärntnerstraße. In: Neues Wiener Blatt 270 (2 nd
  • official ( Oberhüttenverwalter ) in Idrija. E. Tietze: Jahresbericht für 1912. In: …
  • Gymnasium  in Graz (1851) and Olomouc (1856). From 1858 to 1880, he taught natural history in the  …
  • member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences (1892). W. Kühnelt: Marenzeller Emil von. In: …
  • Wissenschaften 1975. p. 77.   Le Monnier, Francis Knight of (Le Monnier, Franz
  • of the Zoological-Botanical Society in Vienna. W. Heß: Rogenhofer, Alois. In: Allgemeine
  • 1873). Habilitation in palaeontology (1877) and geology (1880) at the Technical College in Vienna, …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … many persons Squires Ladies & MPs' (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6–27 …
  • … the campaign than she expected (see the letter from Emma Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin, [2 …
  • … distributing the 'cruelty pamphlet', and letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December …
  • … of 'many of the leading sportsmen of the country', and Francis Trevelyan Buckland, well …
  • … paper Animal World , and prominently linked Charles Darwin"s name to the offer of a prize …
  • … for working horses with sore necks (see letter from Emma Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin, [23 April …
  • … 1861, in 1863 and 1864, from 1871 to 1875, and in 1878 and 1880 (CD’s Classed account books (Down …
  • … not been identified; however, see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]. Only two …