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Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 19 hits

  • Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph Dalton Hooker: ‘I hope this next summer to finish my
  • my species-work’ ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to J. D. Hooker, [5 or 12 November 1845] ). …
  • Of special interest are the nine letters from Joseph Dalton Hooker written during his expedition in
  • and frequently dangerous travels through the mountains. Hooker writes of the complicated geology of
  • of the Sikkim Himalaya. In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwins particular
  • other. Geology, and geological controversy Hookers letters illuminate the role of the
  • Herschel, to write the chapter on geology ( letter to J. F. W. Herschel, 4 February [1848] ). …
  • in the level of land came under renewed scrutiny. In 1847 David Milne, the Scottish geologist, …
  • remains ( letter to the  Scotsman , [after 20 September 1847] ). Other letters to colleagues at
  • thrown away’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 8 [September 1847] ). The second geological theory
  • uniqueness fully. Sometime before the end of December 1847, John Edward Gray, keeper of the
  • that such a monograph was adesideratum’ ( letter to J. L. R. Agassiz, 22 October 1848 ), was
  • are clearly expressed in his letters; he also pointed out to Hooker that it was his species theory
  • of the sexes from an ancestral hermaphrodite in his Notebook D ( Notebooks ) and had subsequently
  • or pistils ( Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from J. S. Henslow, 21 November 1840 ). The sexual
  • this importance comes through in his happy protestations to Hooker: ‘But I can hardly explain what I
  • you say, my species theory is all gospel.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1848 ). Once
  • to H. E. Strickland, 29 January [1849] . As Darwin wrote to J. D. Hooker, who had warned him
  • severe problem for Darwin during this period, especially in 1847 and during the last half of 1848

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v. …
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • Brown 1814] & at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read
  • on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. …
  • Teneriffe. in Pers. Narr. [A. von Humboldt 181429] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle
  • reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r  Horsfield [Horsfield 1824] …
  • sheep [Youatt 1831, 1834, 1837]. Verey Philosophie dHist. Nat. [Virey 1835] read
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • Crawford Eastern Archipelago [Crawfurd 1820] Raffeles d[itt]o [T. S. B. Raffles 1817] …
  • … [Temminck 181315] read Temminck has written Coup d’œil sur la Fauna des iles de la Sonde et
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • He is Horticulturist in France. Michaux, according to Hooker has written on topography of N. …
  • of Anat.— Instinct by D r . Alison [W. P. Alison 1847]. No 19. July. 1840 27 Annales des
  • chiefly on distribution of forms said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith
  • Butler. 3. first sermons [Butler 1834] recommended by Sir. J. Mackintosh J. Long Moral Nature
  • … ]. many very useful papers for me:— not in Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise
  • … —— Mauritius & C. of Good Hope Hooker recommends order [Backhouse
  • Decandolles Veg: Organ: } recommended by  Hooker . [A. P. de
  • C. Watson 1845]— gives up permanent species (alluded to by Hooker) Foreign & British Med. …
  • 43 Lindleys Vegetable Kingdom [Lindley 1846]. Hooker says very good for my purpose
  • Phytologist [ Phytologistmust be read . Hooker. read Fortunes Travels in China
  • Travels in Peru (translated) [J. J. von Tschudi 1847] Gardners Travels in Brazil [Gardner
  • … [North 1826]. (Erasmus) read Hebrew Monarchy [Newman] 1847] Berniers
  • 1843]. (Emma) (read) M rs  Frys Life [Fry 1847] Horace Walpoles letter to C t . …
  • …  animals 54 folio Plates. Maclise 212.6. [Maclise 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. Coll. of Surgeons) …
  • to publish one. 45 Gosse. Birds of Jamaica [Gosse 1847], recommended by Yarrel

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1140 —Darwin to J. C. Ross, 31 Dec 1847 Darwin writes to James Clark Ross, officer …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 18 hits

  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] …
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • …  - Henslow, G. to Darwin, [11 November 1865] J. S. Henslows son, George, passes on the
  • Letter 1113 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [2 September 1847] Darwin questions Mrs. …
  • Men: Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and
  • The experiments were carried outat the suggestion of Dr Hookerand what little he has ascertained
  • to feed to them. Letter 2069  - Tenant, J. to Darwin, [31 March 1857] James
  • University of Bonn. Letter 6046  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin
  • of style. Letter 2461  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • as such”. Letter 2475  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [2 July 1859] Darwin
  • 1113   - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [2 September 1847] Darwin asks Mrs. Whitby to

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Letter 4895Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 20 Sept [1865] Darwin thanks Müller for
  • thinks seems probable. Letter 5173Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 2 Aug 1866
  • to be dichogamous. Letter 5429Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867
  • of other species. Letter 5480Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867
  • Letter 5551Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for
  • Letter 207Darwin, C. R. to Fox, W. D., 23 May 1833 Darwin tells Fox to buy a microscope. …
  • to geology. Letter 1018Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [6 Nov 1846] Darwin
  • full of observations on barnacles and he would like to meet Hooker in London. Letter 1166
  • Owen might discuss the topic [in his contribution to J. F. W. Herschel, ed., Manual of scientific
  • superior”. Letter 1174Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 10 May 1848 Darwin
  • result of applying it to cirripede sexual systems. He tells Hooker that he sent Owen an account of
  • book. Letter 1140Darwin, C. R. to Ross, J. C., 31 Dec 1847 Darwin asks Ross to
  • C. R. to Gould, A. A., 20 Aug [1849] Darwin thanks J. D. Dana for cirripede specimens. Darwin
  • This collection of letters, written between Darwin and Hooker whilst Darwin was preparing his
  • history. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] Darwin writes
  • name to specific name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849
  • descriptions. Letter 1260Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849 Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 20 hits

  • specimens by the young botanist and traveller, Joseph Dalton Hooker. More than 1200 letters between
  • and Richard Owen shows. These friends, with the addition of Hooker, were important to Darwin for
  • Darwin discussed his ideas on species mutability with Hooker, Horner, Jenyns, Lyell, Owen, and
  • after their first exchange, early in 1844, Darwin told Hooker that he was engaged in avery
  • … (it is like confessing a murder) immutable’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [11 January 1844] ). Nine
  • heterodox opinions and later in the year both Jenyns and Hooker were invited to read a manuscript
  • the open. In the event, it was not until the beginning of 1847 that Hooker was given a fair copy of
  • attributed the book to him. But, as his letters to Hooker show, Darwin carefully considered and then
  • Forbes, and Owen were deleted, Henslows was queried, and J. D. Hookers was added. Much later, by
  • on species ( Natural selection ), he had decided that Hooker was by far the best man for the task
  • an argument against the French palaeontologist Alcide dOrbigny, insisting that the vast pampas
  • Journal of researches , and his species work. Joseph Hooker and the Beagle plant
  • and apparently relieved to handover Darwins plants to Hooker, who had just returned from
  • of the Southern Hemisphere. Darwin was quick to spot in Hooker a man he judged could become the
  • laws of creation, Geographical Distribution’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 February 1845] ) and
  • and European botanists. Darwins questions challenged Hooker to apply his particular knowledge to
  • that is not touched upon in their correspondence. Hookers observations on classification provided
  • that of Waterhouse with respect to the animal kingdom. Hooker was also ready to discuss contemporary
  • from each other. The letters also document aspects of Hookers life: his search for a paid position, …
  • … - Darwin's work on barnacles It was also Hooker who helped Darwin in the first stages of

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 8 hits

  • in zoological matters, just as he did on Joseph Dalton Hookers in botany. Moreover, this circle of
  • Club of the Royal Society (having declined to join in 1847). In November of the same year, he was
  • in his health was indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far
  • also drawing the botanist Miles Joseph Berkeley, his friend Hooker, and various readers of the
  • such speculative, large-scale geological changes. As he told Hooker in a letter of 5 June [1855] …
  • arguments for the dispersal of animals and plants with Hooker who, with Charles Lyell and Edward
  • out his species essay in full. In 1850, he had written to Hooker ( Correspondence  vol. 4, …
  • is perverse & will not do as I wish it’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 7 May [1855] ). But, whether

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … state of disarray in the taxonomy of the group. Late in 1847, John Edward Gray, keeper of the …
  • … to hermaphrodite cirripedes, for example,  Darwin informed Hooker of this interesting discovery and …
  • … Toward the end of his study of Balanus , in a letter to Hooker on 25 September [1853] ( …
  • … of his theory of evolution can be recognised. Indeed, both Hooker and Huxley believed that the …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 1980, pp. 60–2, 124–128, Worster 1985, pp. 179–80, 184–7). An appeal It is a …