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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 22 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwins scientific work diminished
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • Britains scientific circles following the publication of Lyells and Huxleys books. Three
  • Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). In the
  • with animals now extinct had been rapidly accumulating. Lyells argument for a greater human
  • as well as on evidence collected earlier in the century. Lyells  Antiquity of man  and Huxleys  …
  • arguments for species change. In this context, Lyells discussion of the origin of species
  • that of inferior animals made himgroan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin
  • out that species were not separately created’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 17 March [1863] ). Public
  • you, as my old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). …
  • stronger statements regarding species change ( letter from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The
  • letter to J. D. Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). …
  • bookfrom which he hadgained nothing’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 1213 March [1863] ). …
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • sterility, that had already occupied much of his time in 1861 and 1862. With the publication in 1862
  • of sterility, a question he had been struggling with in 1861 and 1862; he wanted to determine
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 12 hits

  • human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the
  • he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwins correspondence reveals the scope
  • he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837
  • one stock.” Letter 2070Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • because we can trace the elements into Latin, German &c. but I see much the same sort of thing
  • down of former continents.” Letter 3054Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell
  • him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug [1867] …
  • Letter 7040Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As Darwin began to work on
  • growing to such a stageLetter 8367Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] …
  • altering the breed. Letter 8962Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873
  • Letter 10194Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 23 hits

  • 1 Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • from the correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, …
  • following: Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress
  • Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwinand acts as a sort
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwinmade his home on the border
  • the year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a
  • at the expense of Agassiz. DARWIN:   20   Lyell told me, that Agassiz, having a
  • … – to be falseYours most sincerely and gratefully Charles Darwin. CREED AND FEVER: 1858
  • hopelessly in the mud. BEGINNING OF WAR IN AMERICA: 1861-1862 In which the start of
  • fire. Military drums. GRAY:   113   April 1861. We are now opening a war, upon the
  • forgetfuless of your darling. BOOKS BY THE LATE CHARLES DARWIN: 1863-1865 In which
  • and officially die. And then publish booksby the late Charles Darwin’. Darwin takes up
  • …   173   Ever yours cordially (though an Englishman) Charles Darwin. GRAY174   …
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • at an unexpected and probably transient notorietyCharles Darwin died on the 19th April
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848
  • 1856 29  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 11 APRIL 1861 30  A GRAY TO C DARWIN, EARLY
  • DARWIN TO A GRAY, 4 JULY 1858 48  C DARWIN TO LYELL, 18 JUNE 1858 49  C
  • 16 FEB 1863 99  C DARWIN TO LYELL, 21 AUGUST 1861 100 A GRAY, ATLANTIC
  • 3 JULY 1860 109  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 21 JULY 1861 110 QUOTED IN  C

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 23 hits

  • 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwins  Origin of species , printing
  • surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the
  • But it was the opinion of scientific men that was Darwins main concern. He eagerly scrutinised each
  • his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwins magnanimous attitude soon faded, …
  • butunfairreviews that misrepresented his ideas, Darwin began to feel that without the early
  • it was his methodological criticism in the accusation that Darwin haddeserted the inductive track, …
  • to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above all else Darwin prided himself on having developed a
  • it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This
  • current knowledge could not illuminate thismystery’. Charles Lyell worried, among other things, …
  • did not necessarily lead to progression ( letter to Charles Lyell, 18 [and 19 February 1860] ). To
  • of reasoning about global change. Darwin also knew that Lyell was a powerful potential ally. Indeed, …
  • plant species and varieties than from animal breeding. With Lyell also questioning how interbreeding
  • because more accustomed to reasoning.’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin
  • perfected structure as the eye. As Darwin admitted to Lyell, Gray, and others, imagining how
  • Certainly this was a major difficulty standing in the way of Lyells acceptance of the theory, as
  • is in same predicament with other animals’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] )— he and
  • of the scientifically literate clergymen Baden Powell and Charles Kingsley attested. Moreover, …
  • … (like Lyell) to retract their support altogether (letters to Charles Lyell, 1 June [1860] and
  • different opposers view the subject’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 15 February [1860] ); later he
  • published together under Grays name in a pamphlet (Gray 1861) with the publication costs shared
  • better fun observing is than writing.—’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 12 September [1860] ). Despite
  • … & not amuse myself with interludes.—’ (letters to Charles Lyell, 24 November [1860] , and to

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 22 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwins transmutation theory continued to
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and Charles Lyell . These events all inspired
  • claimed, important for his enjoyment of life. He wrote to Charles Lyell on 22 January [1865] , …
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • vol. 9, letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 September [1861] ). Scott had evidently started his
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • and those of Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon, and Charles Bonnet; Darwin wrote back: ‘I do
  • the Royal Society of Edinburgh criticising Origin . Like Charles Lyell, who wrote to Darwin on
  • for existence (ibid., pp. 27681). Darwin responded to Lyells account in some detail ( see letter
  • the correspondence. At the end of May, the dispute between Charles Lyell and John Lubbock over
  • human antiquity, adding a note to his preface asserting that Lyell in his  Antiquity of man , …
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • set up to support FitzRoys children ( see letter from Charles Shaw, 3 October 1865 ). …
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I
  • Darwin wrote poignantly to his son William on 30 November [1861]: ‘Mamma is in bed with bad Headach. …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 18 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • on botanical dimorphism and trimorphism, published between 1861 and 1864, which raised questions
  • in correspondence throughout the year, as in his remark to Lyell, ‘I quite follow you in thinking
  • in this volume), drawing Darwin, Hooker, and the botanist Charles James Fox Bunbury into the
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • … (Correspondence vol. 9, letter from Asa Gray, 11 October 1861 ). Darwin wished to establish
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • good, & we have been at it many a long year’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 15 February [1866] ). …
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in
  • selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7
  • borne it better than we c d  have hoped’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 7 February [1866] ). Susan

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860] Darwin …
  • … on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] Darwin …
  • … about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin …
  • Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 …
  • Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 …
  • … up revelation”. Letter 2534 — Kingsley, Charles to Darwin, C. R., 18 Nov 1859 …
  • … on beauty. Letter 4752 — Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 22 Jan [1865] Darwin …
  • … of beauty by animals. Letter 5565 — Kingsley, Charles to Darwin, C. R., 6 June 1867 …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] …
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwins niece, Lucy, …
  • the Isle of White. Letter 4433  - Wright, Charles to Gray, A., [20, 25, 26 March
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • in the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] …
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that
  • Letter 3298  - Darwin to Clarke, W. B., [25 October 1861] Darwin asks William Clarke to
  • Letter 3316  - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November 1861] Darwin requests the

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 14 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In this gossipy
  • extract anything valuable from his letters to Darwin and Lyell for Athenæum . He mentioned Darwin
  • species descriptions. Letter 1260Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849
  • Letter 3139Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 4 May [1861] Tegetmeier sends some replies
  • day with Henslow; much had to be done. His friend, Alexander Charles Wood, has written to Capt. …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, forexperimental
  • hothouse early in 1863 marked something of a milestone in Darwins botanical work, since it greatly
  • …  vol5, letter to JD. Hooker, 19 April [1855] ). Darwin became increasingly involved in
  • Though his greenhouse was probably heated to some extent, Darwin found himself on several occasions
  • meaning a construction suitable for tropical plants. In 1861 and 1862, while preparing  Orchids , …
  • again on Turnbulls hothouses in his experiments, begun in 1861, on the Melastomataceae, a family of
  • make observations and even experiments on his behalf. Darwins decision to build a hothouse
  • Hooker, 12 [December 1862] and n13). Initially, Darwin purchased for this purpose a glass
  • of 24 December [1862] ( Correspondence  vol10) Darwin told Hooker: I have
  • Encyclopedia of gardening  (Loudon 1835), a copy of which Darwin signed in 1841 (see the copy in
  • of heat’ (p1100). The latter was the sense in which Darwin used the word. The building of
  • accounts (Down House MS)). When it was completed, Darwin told Turnbull that without Horwoods aid he
  • … ). Even before work on the hothouse started, however, Darwin began making preparations to
  • plants’ (letter to JD. Hooker, 13 January [1863] ). Darwin apparently refers to the catalogues
  • whom he had dealt over many years. In his letter to Hooker, Darwin mentioned that he hoped to be
  • … (letter from JD. Hooker, [15 January 1863] ). Darwin agreed to send Hooker his list of
  • … (letter to JD. Hooker, 30 January [1863] ). Darwin probably gave his list of plants to
  • … [1863] ). On 20 February, the plants from Kew had arrived. Darwin was delighted, telling Hooker: ‘I
  • moss, peat, and charcoal (see the letter from Henrietta Emma Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin, [22
  • of the tropics ( Correspondence  vol3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). …
  • continuing: ‘Do you not think you ought to be sent with M r  Gower to the Police Court?’ (William
  • had4 houses of different temperatures’ (letter to WC. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  …
  • which he received in mid-February (see letter from LC. Treviranus, 12 February 1863 ). …
  • …  The reference is to James Bateman, an orchid specialist (RDesmond 1994). 17.  Stylidium
  • …       Chæmatostigma.       …
  • Cyanophyllum magnificum M  r  Low 29 | of Melastomaceæ …