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From J. D. Hooker   [16 November 1856]

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JDH not happy with CD’s explanation of the absence of north temperate forms in the Southern Hemisphere, given his explanation for the spread of sub-arctic forms to the south. [CD’s note is in response to JDH’s criticism.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 162–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1622

To Joseph Dalton Hooker   8 April [1856]

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Mustering support at Royal Society Council for John Lindley’s Copley Medal. CD thinks Albany Hancock deserves a Royal Medal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 160
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1851

From J. D. Hooker   7 May 1856

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Non-endemic Ascension Island plants brought by man, not wind-transported.

Bentham has found intermediates between oxlip and cowslip in Herefordshire.

JDH finds quantity of albumen in seeds is not variable within a species.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 94–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1869

To J. D. Hooker   9 May [1856]

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Lyell urges CD to publish a sketch of species theory; CD asks JDH’s opinion on best course.

Concerned about opposition, particularly by Owen, to Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 161
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1870

To J. D. Hooker   11 May [1856]

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CD is unsure about JDH’s recommendation that he publish a separate "Preliminary Essay". It is unphilosophical to publish without full details.

CD will work for Huxley’s admission to Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 May [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 162
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1874

To J. D. Hooker   21 [May 1856]

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Huxley’s "vehement" [Royal Institution?] Lectures make it difficult to propose him for Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 [May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1876

To J. D. Hooker   1 June [1856]

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CD (and Emma) had a good laugh over JDH’s mortified response to a misinterpretation (in print) concerning his position on multiple creation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 June [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 164
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1885

To J. D. Hooker   17–8 [June 1856]

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Comments on Huxley–Falconer dispute [see "On the method of palaeontology", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 18 (1856): 43–54].

Wollaston’s On the variation of species [1856].

Has exploded to Lyell against the extension of continents.

Plants common to Europe and NW. America as result of temperate climate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  17–18 [June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 170
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1904

To J. D. Hooker   22 June [1856]

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CD sends reference for "Laburnum case", with comment on his own credulity.

Wants to quote JDH on plants endemic to NW. America.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 June [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 165
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1908

From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

To J. D. Hooker   5 [July 1856]

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CD cannot swallow continental extensions. Has written to Lyell giving a lengthy criticism of the concept [see 1910] and has asked Lyell to forward the letter to JDH.

Perhaps Aristolochia and Viscum are protandrous.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 [July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 166
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1918

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1856]

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Troubled by JDH’s connection between Antarctic island flora and Fuegia, which CD sees as part of a general relation to southern circumpolar flora. Encloses list [not found] of plants from Tristan d’Acunha.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1919

To J. D. Hooker   8 [July 1856]

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CD writing species sketch; must cite cases favouring multiple creations.

Requests details on species JDH listed as common to Chile and New Zealand. Notes their genera are mundane.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 [July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1921

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

To J. D. Hooker   13 July [1856]

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Has found no case of Huxley’s eternal hermaphrodites.

Cruelty and waste in nature.

CD does not believe in hybrids.

One proven case of multiple creations would smash CD’s theory.

Asks JDH to read MS on alpine and Arctic distribution.

Lyell’s "conversion" to mutability.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  13 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1924

To J. D. Hooker   19 July [1856]

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Multiple creations.

Necessity for crossing in plants and animals: JDH to take up the subject; explains separate sexes in trees.

Continental extensions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  19 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 171
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1932

To J. D. Hooker   30 July [1856]

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CD’s predicament with continental extensions: they would remove argument for multiple creations, yet he opposes the doctrine. Lyell will not express an opinion on this.

Lyell fears mutability would lead to more specific names.

Encloses copy of letters to Lyell [1910 and 1917].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 172, 165, and 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1933

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

To J. D. Hooker   5 August [1856]

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Agrees that Lyell’s letters shed no new light on extensions issue. Continental extensions: opposes their being hypothesised all over world.

Commonality of alpine plants damns both extension and migration.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 173
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1938

To J. D. Hooker   7 August [1856]

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Antarctic plants most difficult to account for on any theory. Lyell’s iceberg transportal of seeds.

Are there more representative species of American origin in Tristan da Cunha than in Kerguelen land?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 174
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1940
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