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From J. D. Hooker   2 November 1862



Stupefied by CD’s five forms of Lythrum.

Asa Gray busy with Cypripedium. JDH offers some to CD if he wants to challenge Gray.

J. W. Dawson’s review of JDH’s paper on Arctic plants.

Louis Lucien Bonaparte’s views on Basque and Finnish language [Langue basque et langues finnoises (1862)] suggest to JDH that Basques are Finns left behind after the glacial period, like the Arctic plants!

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 66–7, 70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3792

To J. D. Hooker   3 November [1862]



Requests reference to Jules Planchon’s monograph on Linum [Lond. J. Bot. 6 (1847): 588–603; 7 (1848): 165–86, 473–501, 507–28].

Sends list of seeds, including Oxalis, Boraginaceae especially Alkanna.

Asa Gray says JDH wrote reviews of Orchids in Gardeners’ Chronicle.

His experiments amuse him after dull day’s work on vegetables and fruit-trees.

Leschenaultia formosa has exterior stigma, thus eminently requiring insect aid, and thus ensuring crossing almost inevitably.

Asks whether Samuel Haughton at Dublin who made important medical discovery could be the same who reviewed Origin so hostilely [in Nat. Hist. Rev. 7 (1860): 23–32]; if so, he can sneer at and abuse CD to his heart’s content.

Asa Gray as rabid as ever [on Civil War].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 171
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3793

To J. D. Hooker   4 November [1862]



Cannot see how J. W. Dawson can accuse JDH of asserting a subsidence of Arctic America. Much of evidence for subsidence during glacial period will prove false as it largely rests on ice action which is more and more viewed as subaerial.

Dawson is biased against Darwinism.

Suggests Greenland may have been repopulated after glacial period extinguished flora, by migration in sea-currents.

Max Müller’s view of origin of language is weakest part of his book [see 3752].

Would like to examine the rare Cypripedium hirsutissimum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3795

From J. D. Hooker   7 November 1862



JDH admits he wrote Gardeners’ Chronicle and Natural History Review articles on orchids [Gard. Chron. (1862): 789–90, 863, 910; Nat. Hist. Rev. n.s. 2 (1862): 371–6].

JDH’s objections to CD’s idea of how Greenland was repopulated. Temperate Greenland has as Arctic a flora as Arctic Greenland – a fact of astounding force. Why should certain Scandinavian species be absent? Migration by sea-currents can no more account for the present distribution in Greenland than can special creation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 68–9, 73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3797

To J. D. Hooker   [10–]12 November [1862]



So JDH did write the Gardeners’ Chronicle review [of Orchids]! CD guessed it from the little slap at R. Brown.

Dawson’s lecture has nothing new. Absurd to assume Greenland under water during whole of glacial period. Suggests absence of certain plants in Greenland due to seeds not surviving in sea-water. Suggests an experiment on vitality in sea-water of plants that might be in Greenland. Is more willing to admit a Norway–Greenland land connection than most other cases.

Urges JDH to warn Tyndall on his glacial theory of valleys in Switzerland.

Is working on cultivated plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [10–]12 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3801

From J. D. Hooker   12 November 1862



Samuel Haughton was the prejudiced reviewer of the Origin. JDH’s opinion of SH.

Has heard from a W. African collector that P. B. Du Chaillu’s accounts [Explorations and adventures in equatorial Africa (1861)] are all false.

R. F. Burton has impudently stolen credit for Gustav Mann’s Cameroon expedition.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 75–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3802

From J. D. Hooker   [15 and] 20 November [1862]



Sends CD West Ireland soundings.

More detail on his review "a la Lindley" [see 3797].

Bates’s paper ["Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 23 (1862): 495–566] is capital.

Andrew Murray’s article plays into CD’s hands through sheer ignorance.

JDH is on Royal Society Council.

Has no recollection of applying natural selection to Polynesians. None but a German would dig out such a passage if it exists [see 3812].

Has caused Tyndall to modify his pseudo-geology.

Has not seen Duke of Argyll’s review [Edinburgh Rev. 116 (1862): 378–97]. [The Duke] did not understand Orchids the least little bit, nor the Origin, when JDH saw him.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 and 20 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 71–2, 79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3807

To J. D. Hooker   18 [November 1862]



A German scholar says JDH first applied natural selection to replacement of races of men, the ruder races of Polynesians yielding to civilised Europeans. CD cannot remember reading this.

Warns JDH to take care Welwitschia does not turn into a case of barnacles and consume years instead of months.

In what months do flowers appear in Acropera loddigesia and A. luteola? CD is alarmed by John Scott’s observations on them, which differ from his own. "I am very uneasy."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 [Nov 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 170
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3812

To J. D. Hooker   24 [November 1862]



Sends Asa Gray letter: "nearly as mad as ever in our English eyes".

Bates’s paper is admirable. The act of segregation of varieties into species was never so plainly brought forth.

CD is a little sorry that his present work is leading him to believe rather more in the direct action of physical conditions. Regrets it because it lessens the glory of natural selection and is so confoundedly doubtful.

JDH laid too much stress on importance of crossing with respect to origin of species; but certainly it is important in keeping forms stable.

If only Owen could be excluded from Council of Royal Society Falconer would be good to put in. CD must come down to London to see what he can do.

Falconer’s article in Journal of the Geological Society [18 (1862): 348–69] shows him coming round on permanence of species, but he does not like natural selection.

Sends Lythrum salicaria diagram.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  24 [Nov 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 173, 279b; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Hooker letters 2: 46 JDH/2/1/2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3822

From J. D. Hooker   26 November 1862



Returns Asa Gray letter. Gray has made a great blunder in his criticism of Oliver: he mistakes perpetuation of a variety for "propagation of variation". Confusion between "action of physical causes" and "effects of physical causes". Neither crossing nor natural selection has made so many divergent individuals, but simply variation. "If once you hold that natural selection can create a character your whole doctrine tumbles to the ground." CD’s failure to convey this, and the false doctrine that "like produces like" is at bottom of half the scientific infidelity to CD’s doctrine. There is something to the objection that CD has made a deus ex machina of natural selection since he neglects to dwell on the facts of infinite incessant variations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 61–2, 77–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3831

To J. D. Hooker   [after 26] November [1862]



Discusses differences between Asa Gray’s view and his own on crossing. A common effect is the obliteration of incipient varieties. There is heavy evidence against new characters arising from crossing wild forms, "only intermediate races are then produced". Innate vital forces are somehow led to act differently as a result of direct effect of physical conditions. Astonished by JDH’s statement that every difference might have occurred without selection. CD agrees, but JDH’s manner of putting it astonished him. CD says, "think of each of a thousand seeds bringing forth its plant, and then each a thousand … I cannot even grapple with idea". Responds to JDH’s and Lyell’s feeling that he made too much of a deus ex machina out of natural selection. [Letter actually dated 20 Nov but is certainly after 3831.] [wrong field?]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 26] Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 172
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3834
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