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From J. D. Hooker   [15 November 1854]

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George Bentham’s list of aberrant plant genera. JDH appended the number of species in each genus according to E. G. Steudel’s catalogue [Nomenclator botanicus (1840–1)] and according to JDH and Bentham.

JDH speculates on effect of splitting Australia longitudinally on distribution; it becomes an argument for new creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 386
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1607

From J. D. Hooker   5 December [1854]

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Bentham’s list of aberrant genera: CD’s worry that he eliminated large genera a priori is half right. He eliminated those large, anomalous genera that virtually constitute natural orders. JDH criticises CD’s tabulations of aberrants.

Difficulty of distinguishing affinity and analogy in plants.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Dec [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 388–90
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1611

From J. D. Hooker   [16 November 1856]

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JDH not happy with CD’s explanation of the absence of north temperate forms in the Southern Hemisphere, given his explanation for the spread of sub-arctic forms to the south. [CD’s note is in response to JDH’s criticism.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16 Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 162–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1622

From J. D. Hooker   [3 November 1854]

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JDH’s contempt for R. I. Murchison.

There is a Cyperus species and a Pteris species endemic to hot volcanoes of Ischia. Why are there no other migrators?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [3 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 214–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1629

From J. D. Hooker   [before 7 March 1855]

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CD’s tabulation of colonists curious but explicable.

Working on Tasmanian flora; contemplating general essay on Australian distribution: Tasmania and Australia same alpine species; Swan River flora very peculiar and quite distinct from New South Wales.

Trying to establish new journal at Linnean.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 7 Mar 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 216–17
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1638

From J. D. Hooker   [before 17 March 1855]

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JDH criticises C. J. F. Bunbury’s paper on Madeira [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 1 (1857): 1–35].

Absence of Ophrys on Madeira suggests to JDH a sequence in creation of groups.

Why are flightless insects common in desert?

Australian endemism.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 17 Mar 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 210–13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1644

From J. D. Hooker   [6–9 June 1855]

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Finds Forbes’s continental theories, migration, and double creation are all unsatisfactory explanations of geographical distribution of plants.

Is currently working on problems of sea transport of plant species.

European plants on Australian Alps only explicable by double creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [6–9 June 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 90–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1694

From J. D. Hooker   [8 July 1855]

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Australian Leguminosae problem: of 900 species not ten are common to southwest and southeast. No migration; hence either creation or variation.

Himalayan thistles: graded intermediates between large and small English species, "shakes species to their foundations". Similarity of CD’s and his views on species.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [8 July 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 192–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1714

From J. D. Hooker   7 May 1856

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Non-endemic Ascension Island plants brought by man, not wind-transported.

Bentham has found intermediates between oxlip and cowslip in Herefordshire.

JDH finds quantity of albumen in seeds is not variable within a species.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 94–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1869

From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

From J. D. Hooker   [early December 1856]

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Podostemaceae flowering under water.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Dec 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 149
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1966

From J. D. Hooker   9 November 1856

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JDH approves MS section on geographical distribution.

Never felt so shaky about species before.

His objections to some mechanisms of distribution that CD proposes.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 105–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1983

From J. D. Hooker   22 November 1856

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Continued debate on formation of species as a result of retreat from glaciers.

JDH suggests internal powers of species modification, which he knows CD abhors.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 111–12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1995

From J. D. Hooker   7 December 1856

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Has done New Zealand flora calculations. Results support CD’s theory of necessity of crossing. Trees tend to have separate sexes.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 113–14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2014

From J. D. Hooker   [24 March 1863]

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Has been looking at separation of sexes in poplars.

Interested in reversion.

Does not understand all CD said on inheritance.

JDH now remembers that Origin was "published" some time before it was "distributed" and therefore appeared prior to his own essay [see also 2478].

Impossible to say whether some Dipterocarpaceae survived a cold period or have developed since.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 Mar 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 154, DAR 101: 123–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2027

From J. D. Hooker   [11 April 1857]

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JDH cites W. H. Harvey’s observations on Fucus and David Don’s on Juncus as examples of variations that are independent of climate. There are many such cases. Gives his working scheme for categorising variation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [11 Apr 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 198–201
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2074

From J. D. Hooker   [27] June 1857

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Embryology of plants of low systematic order. Comparative development begins only with first post-cotyledonary leaves.

Curt letter to JDH from George Henslow.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27] June 1857
Classmark:  DAR 100: 115
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2114

From J. D. Hooker   [2 December 1857]

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News of Mrs Henslow’s death.

Studying Impatiens, which bears on CD’s problems. Though genus is endemic to India, with over 100 species, CD will be glad to know they do not run into one another.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [2 Dec 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 178–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2178
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