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To J. D. Hooker   31 [August 1860]



Observations on Drosera: plants can distinguish minute quantities of nitrogenous substances.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 [Aug 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2886

To C. G. B. Daubeny   1 August [1860]


His thanks for the pamphlet ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants" (1860)] and the extremely kind and liberal manner in which Daubeny alludes to CD’s work.

Further discussion of sexual generation and CD’s suspicion that its most important function remains hidden.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny
Date:  1 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Magdalen College, Oxford (MC:F26/C1/119)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2887A

To John Murray   3 August [1860]


Thanks JM for Quarterly Review [July 1860] in which he is "quizzed splendidly". The Bishop [Wilberforce] misrepresents him often, but clever men think they can write a review with very slight knowledge of the book.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  3 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.74–75)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2888

To A. G. More   3 August [1860]


Thanks for Epipactis.

Has AGM looked at pollen masses of bee orchid? Discusses method of insect fertilisation. Asks for specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  3 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2889

To A. G. More   5 August [1860]


Thanks for observations on bee orchid.

Comments on Hooker’s ["On the functions and structure of the rostellum of Listera ovata", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64].

Discusses rostellum and describes fertilisation of Epipactis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  5 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2890

From T. H. Huxley   6 August 1860


Announces great ally for CD: K. E. von Baer "worth all the Owens & Bishops that ever were pupped". Quotes Baer: "J’ai énoncé les mêmes idées que M. Darwin", but based only on zoological geography.

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Aug 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 31–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2891

To J. D. Hooker   7 August [1860]



Owen wants to be civil, and sneer behind CD’s back.

Those, like Rudolph Wagner, who want to go halfway on theory, are "booked to go further".

Anatomy of orchids.

Huxley says K. E. von Baer goes "a great way with me".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 72
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2892

To T. H. Huxley   8 August [1860]


News of K. E. von Baer’s support is magnificent – far outweighs Owen and Agassiz. Asks THH to tell Baer that a statement from him would be of utmost value.

R. Wagner [in an article on Louis Agassiz’s principles of classification, Göttingsche gelehrte Anzeiger (1860) pt 2: 761–800] "goes half way" between Agassiz and Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  8 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 133)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2893

To A. G. More   9 August [1860]


Asks AGM to make an experiment on Epipactis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  9 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2894

To Charles Lyell   11 August [1860]


Comments on his fear that "so many heavy guns fired by great men" might influence the public and scientists.

Sends CL the Owen-inspired Wilberforce review [Q. Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions defence of Origin by Asa Gray at American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Agassiz and Theophilus Parsons have poor criticisms ["Prof. Agassiz on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 142–54].

Lists other negative reviews by Rudolph Wagner ["An essay on classification by Louis Agassiz", Göttingische Gelehrte Anz. (1860) pt 2: 761–800], Charles Daubeny ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants, with particular reference to Mr Darwin’s work On the origin of species by natural selection", Rep. BAAS 30 (1860) pt 2: 109–10], and two anonymous ones (one favourable).

Huxley says K. E. von Baer "goes a long way with us".

Comments on "pipes" in chalk as evidence of geological processes still at work.

Is writing on origin of dog breeds [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.223)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2895

To Asa Gray   11 August [1860]


Agassiz is strongly opposed to Origin, but CD thinks K. E. von Baer may come out in support.

Discusses the possibility of favourable monstrosities in the light of Theophilus Parsons’ essay ["On the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 1–13].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (35)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2896

From Charles Théophile Gaudin   [15 August 1860]



Offers to supply CD with information about a new "race" of bees with a larger proboscis. They produce more honey as a result of being able to probe to greater depths.

Author:  Charles-Théophile Gaudin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 Aug 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 47: 164
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2897

To Robert Monsey Rolfe?   15 August [1860]


Declines his Lordship’s invitation to dinner for reasons of health.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Monsey Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth of Cranworth
Date:  15 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Paul C. Richards (dealer)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2897A

From William Henry Harvey   24 August 1860


Continues earlier discussion, admitting his opinions have been modified. Still regards natural selection as one agent of several. States areas of disagreement.

Author:  William Henry Harvey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Aug 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 33–40
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2898

To Edward Cresy   25 August [1860]


Invites EC to visit. Wants to discuss education of his sons.

Daughter [Henrietta] has been very ill for 15 weeks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  25 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Private collection
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2899

To Charles Lyell   28 August [1860]


The adultery of Lady [Harriet Spencer] Grey and Captain Keppell.

A new species of elephant discovered by Hugh Falconer.

Comments on excellent review by Asa Gray [Atlantic Monthly 6 (1860): 229–39].

Still believes dogs descended from several wild stocks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.224)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2900

From Charles Lyell   28 August 1860


Objections to Origin which Owen and Wilberforce could have used. Why have incipient mammalian forms not arisen from lower vertebrates on islands separated since Miocene period? Knows CD would not derive Eocene Mammalia from higher reptiles, but would bats not be modified into other mammalian forms on an ancient island? This is not the case in New Zealand. Why have island seals not become terrestrial? Assumes rate of change is greatest in mammals. Difficulties are small compared with ability to explain absence of Mammalia in pre-Pliocene islands. Asks about descent of Amblyrhynchus. Believes objections apply equally well to independent creation of animal types, but not if the First Cause is allowed completely free agency.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 Aug 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal IV, pp. 164–71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2900A

To A. D. Bartlett   24 August [1860]


Sends copy of Origin.

Discusses stripes on hybrid of donkey and wild ass.

Will let ADB know if lady consents to sending rabbits to [Zoological] Gardens.

Asks about gestation of Canidae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Abraham Dee Bartlett
Date:  24 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4273
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