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To J. D. Hooker   22 July [1863]



Differences between tendrils derived from leaves and those derived from branches.

CD on Asa Gray’s attitude on the Civil War.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 July [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 199
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4250

From W. E. Darwin   23 July [1863]


Could not find Anchusa but will go out and find some.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 July [1863]
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4251F

From John Scott   23 July [1863]


Discusses heterostyly in Hottonia.

Criticises L. C. Treviranus’ statements on Primula longiflora’s having short-styled form.

Describes his results with crossing different coloured primroses. Will let CD, when he reads his paper, decide whether his finding white and red varieties perfectly sterile when crossed, yet fertile inter se, ought to be published.

Difficulty in getting his orchid paper published in Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 July [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4252

To John Scott   25 [July 1863]


Encourages JS to continue work on coloured primrose. No one has noticed this since Gärtner. CD will send his own data for JS’s use and will read MS when ready. Advises JS to repeat experiments if evidence is weak – for his reputation’s sake and for satisfaction at fully establishing a fact.

Treviranus made a slip of pen in writing of Primula longiflora as short-styled.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  25 [July 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 93: B45–6, B69
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4253

To J. D. Hooker   26 [July 1863]



Asa Gray writes as if Civil War were a holy war.

J. E. Renan on Jesus [Vie de Jésus (1863)].

Literature on tendrils of Cucurbita is contradictory.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 [July 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 203
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4254

To Friedrich Hildebrand   28 July [1863]


Comments on FH’s paper ["Fruchtbildung der Orchideen", Bot. Ztg. 21 (1863): 329–33, 337–45]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History will publish it in September [3d ser. 12 (1863): 169–74].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Friedrich Hermann Gustav (Friedrich) Hildebrand
Date:  28 July [1863]
Classmark:  Courtesy of Eilo Hildebrand (photocopy) (Original, previously owned by Klaus Groove, sold by Venator and Hanstein, Cologne (dealers), 16 March 2018.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4255

To G. H. K. Thwaites   29 July [1863]


Thanks GHKT for Limnanthemum seed.

Comments on his view of algal reproduction.

Discusses flower of Cassia.

Sends photograph of himself.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henry Kendrick Thwaites
Date:  29 July [1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.295)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4256

From Robert Swinhoe   29 July 1863



Describes the similarity in plumage changes between Japanese and Chinese birds on the one hand and British and continental birds on the other. Suggests the changes are due to the warm gulf streams around both islands.

Author:  Robert Swinhoe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 47: 176–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4257

From L. E. Becker   31 July [1863]


Has found seeds produced by an hermaphroditic Lychnis and will send them. On structural obstacles to fertilisation of hermaphrodite Lychnis.

Author:  Lydia Ernestine Becker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 July [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 111
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4258

From Edward Bradford   31 July 1863


Doubts CD’s view in Orchids [pp. 236–46] that Catasetum tridentatum is exclusively male and has as its female form the genus Monachanthus. EB has grown many of this type in Trinidad; has never seen that female form.

Author:  Edward Bradford
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 July 1863
Classmark:  DAR 160: 274, DAR 166: 95/1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4259

To John Scott   1 and 3 August [1863]


Thanks JS for orchid paper [Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 7 (1863): 543–50]. JS presents excellent new facts on sterility of orchids.

His argument that coloured primroses are not hybrids is good, as is idea of discovering primrose parentage by breeding for colours.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  1 and 3 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 93: B24, B27–8, B70; DAR 147: 455
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4260

To L. E. Becker   2 August [1863]


Thanks LEB for the Lychnis seed [see 4258], which he will plant in the hope of fertilising the little ovaria.

Comments on the two forms of Linum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Lydia Ernestine Becker
Date:  2 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Charterhouse Archives (ACC 013)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4260A

To J. D. Hooker   3 August [1863]



Tendril plants received.

Has just completed large crossing experiment with Lythrum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 201
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4261

To Asa Gray   4 August [1863]


Anticipated AG’s attitude on design in orchids. Does he not think that the variations that gave rise to fancy pigeon varieties were accidental?

Has been working hard at Lythrum

and spontaneous movements of tendrils.

Defends Drosera as a "sagacious animal" but does not know whether he will ever publish on it.

Comments on political situation in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  4 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (83)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4262

To Alphonse de Candolle   4 August [1863]


Asks AdeC to observe two species of Lythrum to see whether they are dimorphic as stated by Vaucher. CD can find no trace of this in dried specimens he has examined; "if either species present any difference in length of pistil and stamens, it is most likely that three forms should be presented".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  4 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4263

From Julius von Haast   6 August 1863


Sends a map of the province of Canterbury, marking his own and other explorations.

Author:  John Francis Julius (Julius) von Haast
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 166: 5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4264

From Hermann Crüger   8 August 1863


Thanks for presentation copy of Linum paper [Collected papers 2: 93–105].

Ficus experiments confirm CD’s supposition that insects visit Melastoma for nectar, but HC thinks pollen-seekers fertilise the flowers.

Maranta fertilisation.

Author:  Hermann Crüger
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 161: 277, 277/1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4265

To J. D. Hooker   12–13 August [1863]



Doubts Decaisne’s report of larkspur self-fertilisation.

Enthusiastically observes climbing plants. Needs to know how novel his observations are. Finds R. J. H. Dutrochet has made similar observations, so he has wasted some time. [See Climbing plants, p. 1 n.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12–13 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 202
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4266

To Charles Lyell   14 August [1863]


Congratulates CL on finding Arctic shells.

Comments on paper by E. B. Hunt ["On the origin, growth, substructure and chronology of the Florida reef", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 35 (1863): 197–210].

Mentions J. D. Dana’s health.

George Bentham’s statement on species [Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (1863): xi–xxix].

Praises Bates’s book [Naturalist on the river Amazons (1863)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.296)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4267

From Robert Swinhoe   14 August 1863



Sends two interesting cases: a flamingo with barnacles covering its legs

and castrated wild asses of Kutch.

Author:  Robert Swinhoe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 205.2 (Letters): 253
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4268
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