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To J. D. Hooker   19 [June 1860]


CD writes of his admiration for pollination contrivances in Gymnadenia. Ask George Bentham whether this plant should be removed from genus Orchis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  19 [June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 69 (EH 88206052)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3290

To A. D. Bartlett   24 August [1860]


Sends copy of Origin.

Discusses stripes on hybrid of donkey and wild ass.

Will let ADB know if lady consents to sending rabbits to [Zoological] Gardens.

Asks about gestation of Canidae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Abraham Dee Bartlett
Date:  24 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4273

From E. A. Darwin   12 November [1860–8]


Sends the tithes.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov [1860-8]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4340

To M. T. Masters   25 April [1860]


Glad to hear of MTM’s papers [? "On a peloria and semidouble flower of Ophrys aranifera, Huds.", J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 8 (1865): 207–11 and "Observations on the morphology and anatomy of the genus Restio, Linn.", J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 8 (1865): 211–55].

CD doubts the value, for origin of species, of parallels between peloria in "distinct groups".

Gärtner proved the stigma can select its own pollen from a mixture of foreign pollens. But much evidence shows varieties of same species are prepotent over a plant’s own pollen.

MTM’s father [William] believes that variation goes on for a long time once it has commenced.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Maxwell Tylden Masters
Date:  25 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  Shrewsbury School Archives (SR/Darwin box 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4818

To Charles Lyell   12 [March 1860]


Discusses the intellectual development of the ancient Greeks as an objection to evolution and gives his reply.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 [Mar 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.203)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5032

To F. M. Wedgwood   5 March [1860–9]


Thanks for a shell of an edible mollusc and also specimens of blind cave animals, which he will present in FW’s name to the British Museum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frances Mosley (Fanny Frank) Wedgwood
Date:  5 Mar [1860–9]
Classmark:  Alan Wedgwood (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5984F

From John Cattell   [after 5 May 1860]



Future orders will be highly esteemed.

Author:  John Cattell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 5 May 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 53.2: 167r
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9213

To Daniel Oliver   24 [September 1860]


Admires DO’s correlation of spiny tree species and dry hot climate. CD suggests that spines, like strange aroma of desert plants, protect against browsing where there are few plants.

Fragrance and unisexuality.

Dimorphism in Viola tricolor.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  24 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 22 (EH 88206006)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2960

To Asa Gray   24 October [1860]


Has been consulting with John Murray about the possibility of publishing AG’s three Atlantic Monthly articles [see 2910] as a pamphlet, but has been strongly advised against it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  24 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (33)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2961

To John Innes   26 October [1860]


Etty has had a relapse. "What the end will be, we know not."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Brodie Innes
Date:  26 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2962

To W. E. Darwin   26 [October 1860]


Concern over Henrietta’s illness.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  26 [Oct 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 58
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2963

To J. S. Henslow   26 October [1860]


CD does not mind C. R. Bree’s dull, unvarying abuse and misrepresentation, but when he doubts CD’s deliberate word, "that is the act of a man who has not the soul of a gentleman in him".

JSH’s letter in Athenæum ["Flints in the drift", 20 Oct. 1860, p. 516] is interesting.

H. Freke’s paper [On the origin of species by means of organic affinity (1861)] is beyond CD’s scope.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  26 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A81–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2964

To Daniel Oliver   27 [September 1860]


Thinks he has worked out simple mechanism of movement in Drosera. Believes he is correct that gum has no effect.

Thanks for Trécul paper ["Organisation des glandes pédicellées de la feuille du Drosera rotundifolia", C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 40: 1355–8; Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 3d ser. 3: 303–11].

Chloroform paralyses plants in 30 seconds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  27 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 23 (EH 88206007)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2965

To David Thomas Ansted   27 October [1860]


Comments on interpretation of natural selection in DTA’s Geological gossip [1860].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  David Thomas Ansted
Date:  27 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2966

From Benjamin Silliman Jr   27 October 1860


On the suggestion of Jeffries Wyman, he writes about the rats that he captured in Mammoth Cave in 1850. They were indeed blind. Reginald Mantell studied them and learned that with long exposure to graduated light, they became somewhat sensitised. Sends copy of an abstract which he wrote as a letter to A. H. Guyot ["On the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky", Am. Journal of Sci. and Arts 2d ser. 11 (1851)]. [See 3007.]

Author:  Benjamin Silliman, Jr
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Oct 1860
Classmark:  Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL (bound with Silliman 1851)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2966B

To William Sharpey   28 October [1860]


Testimonial for Daniel Oliver’s candidacy as Professor of Botany [DO was Professor of Botany, University College London, 1861–88].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Sharpey
Date:  28 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 70 (EH)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2967

From Edward Cresy   30 October 1860


Sends CD passages from A. S. Taylor’s book [On poisons in relation to medical jurisprudence and medicine, 2d ed. (1859)], citing smallest portions of poisons that are chemically detectable. "Drosera beats the chemists hollow."

Author:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Oct 1860
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 6, 58.2: 49–52
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2968

To Asa Gray   31 October [1860]


Talks of getting copies of AG’s Atlantic Monthly articles for distribution in England.

Describes the pollinating mechanisms of Orchis pyramidalis and Spiranthes autumnalis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  31 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (45 and 124a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2969

From John Medows Rodwell   31 October 1860



Observations on his white blue-eyed cat. There is no sign of deafness.

Apropos of ch. 5 of Origin, tells of blind rats found when a Roman bridge was excavated.

Author:  John Medows Rodwell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 Oct 1860
Classmark:  DAR 47: 167–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2970

From Daniel Oliver   [before 23 October 1860]



Quotes note by Julius Milde on Drosera rotundifolia from Botanische Zeitung (1852): 540.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 23 Oct 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 58.2: 55
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2971
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