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To Charles Lyell   3 October [1860]


Comments on letter from Jeffries Wyman.

Discusses reprinting reviews by Asa Gray.

Mentions views of W. S. Symonds on the geological record.

Discusses descent of turtles and tortoises.

The universality of variation.

Notes only a few species leave modified descendants.

Discusses Apteryx.

Variation among pigeons.

Comments on fertility among hybrids.

Does not agree that he makes natural selection do too much work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.230)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2935

To Jeffries Wyman   3 October [1860]


JW’s case of black hogs shows marvellous relation of colour and constitution.

Could JW get information about eyes of cave rat?

Was JW struck by length of hind legs of male cattle?

CD has long shared JW’s doubts that mutilations were ever inherited but Brown-Séquard’s case seems to settle question.

Is not case of cats with blue eyes being deaf very odd?

Spinal stripes on horse too common to explain in way informant supposes.

Believes Owen "goes a long way with us", though he attacked CD in Edinburgh Review.

"No one other person understands me so thoroughly as Asa Gray."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jeffries Wyman
Date:  3 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine (Jeffries Wyman papers H MS c12)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2936

From Charles Lyell   [after 3 October 1860]



CD would have carried the public more if he had explained adaptations by multiple causes, some unknown and some well known, i.e., natural selection.

Discusses Hooker’s views of extinction on St Helena.

Work on antiquity of man suspended.

Stopped by 11th edition of Principles of geology [1872].

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 3 Oct 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 397
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2937

To Charles Lyell   5 [October 1860]


Discusses views of T. V. Wollaston concerning island species related to those of mainland; possible land connection between islands and mainland.

Comments on bats of Atlantic islands.

Plant extinction on St Helena.

Experiments on Drosera.

Bronn’s objections [to the Origin] at end of his translation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 [Oct 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.231)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2938

To Daniel Oliver   5 October [1860]


A poser: carbonate of soda produces inflection rather than contraction in Drosera. Possible solution: glands at end of hairs absorb as well as secrete. Fascinated by currents in cells after inflection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  5 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 14 (EH 88205998)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2939

To H. G. Bronn   5 October [1860]


Answers HGB’s criticism of Origin.

Explains HGB’s case of differences in rats by adaptation.

CD’s view explains homological and embryological resemblances of each type.

Does not believe all development is at same rate. Cites Australian forms.

Does not see force of objection that origin of life must be explained.

Asks if C. L. Brehm’s subspecies of birds are really characteristic of regions of Germany.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Heinrich Georg Bronn
Date:  5 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2940

From Charles Lyell   6 October 1860


Wonders why the coracoid bone in the flightless Apteryx is so large when the clavicles are reduced. The clavicles are even separate in the ostrich. The large coracoid in reptiles is explained by the connection to the forelimbs.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Oct 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VII, pp. 21–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2940A

To Daniel Oliver   [29 September 1860]


Requests Dionaea now that he knows Drosera so well. Wants to compare fluids secreted; in Drosera they are acid and have antiseptic effect on meat.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  [29 Sept 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 15 (EH 88205999)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2941

To Charles Lyell   8 October [1860]


Encloses advertisement [for C. R. Bree, Species not transmutable (1860)].

Discusses Bronn’s chapter of criticisms.

Mentions variation in rats.

Has ordered book by Bree.

Discusses suggestion that southern corners of Australia may once have been islands.

Mentions "wild speculations" about change in earth’s axes.

CL’s ideas on variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.232)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2942

From W. H. Harvey   8 October 1860


Thanks CD for his patience and good-nature; does not want a controversial correspondence but wishes to reply to matters in CD’s letter, and does.

Author:  William Henry Harvey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Oct 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 54–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2943

From James Drummond   8 October 1860


Observations of Brunonia and a case of a malvaceous flower, which never opened and was self-fertilised.

Author:  James Drummond
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Oct 1860
Classmark:  DAR 162.2: 242
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2944

To J. S. Henslow   11 October [1860]


Sends further details on the movement of the red fluid substance in Drosera. Will write a paper on it.

"Dr [C. R.] Bree ""pitches"" into me handsomely."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  11 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A79–80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2945

To Daniel Oliver   12 [October 1860]


Requests DO apply carbonate of ammonia to sensitive hair of Dionaea and measure reaction time. Wants to compare Drosera and Dionaea.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  12 [Oct 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 16 (EH 88206000)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2946

To Daniel Oliver   12 [October 1860]


Wants to amend request [see 2946] if DO wants to try carbonate of ammonia experiment. Put third drop on midrib of leaf [of Dionaea] or inside upper side.

Sorry DO already has Origin. Would he like Journal of Travels [Journal of researches]?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  12 [Oct 1860]
Classmark:  UCL Library Services, Special Collections (Tipped into Journal of researches (1860) REF COLLECTION K SMITH WOODWARD DAR)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2946A

To John Murray   12 October [1860]


Lyell tells CD Origin still sells "pretty well", which pleases and surprises him. If a new edition should be called for, he has a good many corrections and a historical preface for it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  12 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.82–83)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2947

To Johann Nicolaus Trübner?   14 October [1860]


Orders a copy of September number of Silliman’s Journal. A friend has recommended an article in it [A. Gray and D. Treadwell, "Discussion between two readers of Darwin’s treatise on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 226–39].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Nicolaus (Nicholas) Trübner
Date:  14 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  Fitzwilliam Museum Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2948

To Daniel Oliver   14 October [1860]


Has examined nearly all British orchids.

Hooker’s error on Listera.

Change in colour and consistency of Drosera hair glands after leaf inflection. Analogous structures in Dionaea. Requests Oliver confirm these observations on live plants, of which he has none.

In a muddle over the effects of salts on insectivorous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  14 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 17 (EH 88206001)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2949

To Edward Cresy   14 October [1860]


Discusses letter from A. W. v. Hofmann concerning solution of iodine in water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  14 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 314
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2950

To John Medows Rodwell   15 October [1860]


Comments on Rodwell’s discussion of the “struggle for life” with reference to languages and G. H. Lewes’s article in the Cornhill Magazine (Lewes 1860, pp. 445–7). Comments on Rodwell’s account of horses affected by mildewed pasturage, and asks for more information about his white cat.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Medows Rodwell
Date:  15 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 149
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2950F

To Daniel Oliver   17 October [1860]


Thanks for information and extracts.

M. A. Curtis, quoted in ["Dionaea"] Penny encyclopedia [(1837) 8: 508], gives the only full account of Dionaea.

Concurs in DO’s explanation of Dionaea footstalk cells, which CD took for stomata.

Is using carbonate of ammonia as a substitute for flies and colour change in glands as index of action on Drosera. Suspects other nitrogenous compounds do not act till decomposed into carbonate of ammonia. Beginning to write Drosera paper. Action of nitrogenous compounds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  17 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 18 (EH 88206002)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2951
Document type
letter (479)
Darwin, C. R.[X]
Hooker, J. D. (61)
Lyell, Charles (56)
Huxley, T. H. (31)
Gray, Asa (29)
Oliver, Daniel (26)
Murray, John (b) (18)
Henslow, J. S. (13)
Cresy, Edward, Jr (11)
Bronn, H. G. (9)
Unidentified (8)
Lubbock, John (7)
More, A. G. (7)
Tegetmeier, W. B. (7)
Williams & Norgate (7)
Higgins, John (6)
Darwin, W. E. (5)
Drummond, James (a) (5)
Fox, W. D. (5)
Innes, J. B. (5)
Miller, W. H. (5)
Sclater, P. L. (5)
Bookseller. (4)
Gardeners’ Chronicle (4)
Murray, Andrew (4)
Rodwell, J. M. (4)
Carpenter, W. B. (3)
Harvey, W. H. (3)
Masters, M. T. (3)
Pictet de la Rive, F. J. (3)
Quatrefages de Bréau, Armand de Quatrefages (3)
Spencer, Herbert (3)
Thwaites, G. H. K. (3)
Watson, H. C. (3)
Wyman, Jeffries (3)
Blomefield, Leonard (2)
Bond, Frederick (2)
Brent, B. P. (2)
Bridges, Thomas (b) (2)
Bunbury, C. J. F. (2)
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Ramsay, A. C. (2)
Reed, G. V. (2)
Rolleston, George (2)
Silliman, Benjamin, Jr (2)
Skirving, R. S. (2)
Smith, Frederick (a) (2)
Smith, J. T. (2)
Stainton, H. T. (2)
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Wallace, A. R. (2)
Wallich, G. C. (2)
Waterhouse, G. R. (2)
Wedgwood, F. M. (2)
Westwood, J. O. (2)
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Blewitt, Octavian (1)
Boott, Francis (1)
Cottage Gardener (1)
Dana, J. D. (1)
Darwin, E. A. (1)
Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer (1)
Eyton, T. C. (1)
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Galton, Francis (1)
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Royal College of Surgeons (1)
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Victoria, queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and empress of India (1)
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Way, Albert (1)
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Wollaston, T. V. (1)
secretary of Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (1)
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