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To Charles Lyell   20 November [1860]


Admires Edward Forbes’s theory of continental extensions, but it will discourage investigation of distribution.

Mentions Oswald Heer’s proposed map of Atlantis.

Discusses extinction of plants caused by the glacial era. Migration of plants and animals during glacial period.

Encourages CL’s work [on Antiquity of man (1863)].

Comments on unfriendly reviews. Asks CL’s opinion about including a reply to reviewers in next edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.233)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2989

To John Murray   20 November [1860]


Hears Origin [2d ed.] was sold out. Next edition will need a good many alterations. Asks JM to provide him with a copy of the second revised U. S. edition. He wants to see how his long corrections look in type.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.77–78)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2990

To J. D. Hooker   21 November [1860]



Welcomes JDH home from Middle Eastern expedition.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 75
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2991

To James Drummond   22 November [1860]


JD’s letter of 17 Sept about Leschenaultia not seeding is surprising. CD’s experiments point to insects which, though perhaps not indispensable to their fertilisation, are useful to it. Would like to know whether the flower of Leschenaultia is visited by bees or other insects.

JD’s offer to send seeds of Distylis and the other genus is of greatest possible interest.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Drummond
Date:  22 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  J. S. Battye Library of Western Australian History, State Library of Western Australia (Accession 2275A)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2992

To Henry Walter Bates   22 November [1860]


Thanks for interesting letter which confirms belief that a good observer is a good theorist.

He is glad to hear that HWB, with his wide knowledge of natural history, has anticipated CD in many respects and agrees with the Origin.

Has been thoroughly attacked, especially by entomologists – J. O. Westwood, T. V. Wollaston, and Andrew Murray.

Glad HWB is writing on "equatorial refrigeration"; CD expresses his belief in north to south migration during glacial period.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  22 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2993

To T. H. Huxley   22 November [1860]


Has had a good letter from Robert McDonnell. Thinks he will be converted in time.

Impatient to see first number of Natural History Review.

Murray wants a new edition of Origin immediately.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  22 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 147)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2994

From Daniel Oliver   23 November 1860



Dr Hooker has given him CD’s memorandum on the fly-catcher.

Copies out extract from Curtis’ Botanical Magazine [On Apocynum androsæmifolium, 8 (1794): tab.]: 280 and gives a further reference in Erasmus Darwin’s The loves of plants [1789]. Suggests that they look at Apocynum.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Nov 1860
Classmark:  DAR 157a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2995A

To Charles Lyell   24 November [1860]


Comments on CL’s advice not to reply directly to reviews.

Describes work on his Drosera manuscript.

Work delayed on his "larger book" [Variation].

Comments at length on the evolutionary significance of Robert McDonnell’s investigations ["On an organ in the skate", Nat. Hist. Rev. (1861): 57–60].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  24 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.234)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2996

From Charles Lyell   24 November 1860


CL has calculated that elevation and subsidence of certain formations in Sweden and Norway take place at the rate of 2 1/2 feet per century. He now proposes to estimate the age of a bed by including a conjecture that pauses occur in the oscillations in the ratio of 4 periods of stasis to one of movement. Applying this formula to Scotland, the last subsidence and re-elevation would be 590,000 years and the age of the beds with human implements would be 20,000 years.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Nov 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VII, pp. 40–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2996A

To Charles Lyell   25 November [1860]


Discusses elevation and subsidence of Europe.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.235)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2997

To Asa Gray   26 November [1860]


Has reread AG’s third Atlantic Monthly article. It is admirable, but CD cannot go as far as AG on design.

Mentions other opinions and reviews of Origin.

Relates some experiments on Drosera showing its extreme sensitivity; requests some observations on orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  26 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (27)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2998

To J. D. Hooker   26 November [1860]



Preparing new edition of Origin and asks for JDH’s corrections and criticisms.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 76
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2999

From J. D. Hooker   [26 November – 4 December 1860]



Encourages CD’s work in vegetable physiology.

Ascending the Lebanon JDH noted limits of plant distribution as CD requested: lower limits of a genus sharper than upper. Sharpness of boundaries related to a plant’s moisture requirement.

Impressed by "sporadic" distribution at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 Nov – 4 Dec 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 158–60
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3000

To John Lubbock   28 November [1860]


Praise for a paper on the Entomostraca by Lubbock (Lubbock 1862). Thanks for the compliment paid to the Origin and for his general comments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  28 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 40b (EH 88206449)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3001

From Charles Lyell   30 November 1860


Satisfied that CD finds his conjectured rate of elevation and long periods of stasis reasonable, even if these periods cannot be estimated. Explaining upheaval by subterranean lava flow makes these pauses plausible. Suspects that mountainous areas move more than lowland and coastal areas. General upheavals or subsidence in Europe in glacial period are unlikely. Believes with Jamieson that there was glacial action in Scotland before its submergence and that it was equally mountainous then. Subterranean upheaval visits different countries by turn. Horizontal Silurian strata must have been submerged and upheaved. Rest has always been the general surface character. Believes, however, that the quantity of late Tertiary movement is against CD’s belief in the constancy of continents and oceans: perhaps since the Miocene period, but not since the Cretaceous.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Nov 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VII, pp. 49–57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3001A

To John Murray   22 [November 1860]


Asks how soon he must send proofs [of Origin, 3d ed.] to printer. His corrections would not take more than three weeks. The longest job will be to glance over the endless reviews to guide him in his corrections.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  22 [Nov 1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 72–73)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3029

From E. A. Darwin   12 November [1860–8]


Sends the tithes.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov [1860-8]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4340
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