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To Charles Lyell   17 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses relationship between natural selection and more general laws. Law of gravity is not seen as requiring design. Mentions mathematicians’ judgment of probability.

Notes gestation periods for hounds.

Etty is somewhat better.

Mentions his paper on fertilisation of orchids by insects [Collected papers 2: 32–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.217)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2833

To W. B. Carpenter   17 June [1860]

Summary

Must defer WBC’s visit, owing to daughter’s illness.

Comments on response to the Origin. Has been "well pitched into", but cares little, because of support of men like WBC.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Benjamin Carpenter
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.6: 6 (EH 88205923)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2834

To Thomas Campbell Eyton   18 June [1860]

Summary

Asks about the period of gestation in dogs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  18 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.218)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2835

To W. D. Fox   18 June [1860]

Summary

Has WDF ever observed musk ducks laying eggs in high places? The case bears on retention of aboriginal habits.

Also wants data on period of gestation of dog breeds. [See Variation 1: 30.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  18 June [1860]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 129)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2836

From John Higgins   19 June 1860

Summary

Sends a plan of the Anwick Estate: will value it on Saturday next (23 June 1860).

Will purchase it for CD at the auction on 25 June if he can secure favourable terms.

Author:  John Higgins
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 June 1860
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/3/5, HIG/4/2/3/6, HIG/4/2/3/14)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2836F

From Frederick Bond   [16? June 1860]

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Summary

Observations on moths visiting flowers.

Author:  Frederick Bond
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [16? June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 76 (ser. 2): 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2837

From Charles Lyell   19 June 1860

Summary

Sees Huxley’s deification of matter and force as a reaction to the way Paley likened the "Unknown Cause" to the mind of man so that new causes could be introduced. If you wish to retain free will which is inconsistent with constant law, Paley’s position is better. Free will is a recently introduced cause on our planet. It cannot be fully attributed to secondary causes.

What CD says about the variation in gestation of the hound is remarkable.

The astonishing fertile rabbit–hare hybrids encourage belief in Pallas’s theory of the multiple origin of dogs.

Does the regularity of gestation in man indicate a common stock?

Hooker’s observation of absence of forms peculiar to extra-Arctic Greenland indicates that the time since the beginning of the glacial period is brief in geological terms.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 June 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal VI, pp. 117–23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2837A

From John Higgins   16 June 1860

Summary

Has not received any replies from the parties.

Either he or his son will value the property after JH’s return to Alford.

Author:  John Higgins
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 June 1860
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/3/7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2837F

To Charles Lyell   20 [June 1860]

Summary

Blyth’s effort to raise money for a Chinese expedition.

Comments on free-will in animals.

Says natural selection is not in the same category with Huxley’s "force" and "matter".

Discusses remarkable variation in period of gestation in dogs and ducks.

Discusses Arctic flora.

Has been working on orchids; they beat woodpeckers in adaptation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.219)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2838

To H. T. Stainton   20 June [1860]

Summary

Has had a very satisfactory answer from Mr Parfitt. Asks HTS to insert query in Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer and also to answer it himself. ["Do the Tineina and other small moths suck flowers?", Collected papers 2: 35–6.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Tibbats Stainton
Date:  20 June [1860]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (General Special Collections MSS DAR 18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2839

To John Higgins   21 June [1860]

Summary

Places affair [land purchase] entirely in JH’s hands. Son [William?] will visit in a week or two.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  21 June [1860]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/3/15)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2840

To John Higgins   22 June 1860

Summary

Acknowledges receipt of £244 5s. 11d. for half-year rents less deductions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  22 June 1860
Classmark:  Dominic Winter Auctioneers (dealers) (10 April 2019, lot 138)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2840F

To Alexander Goodman More   24 June [1860]

Summary

Asks for information about pollen of bee orchid. Asks for specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  24 June [1860]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2841

To Charles Lyell   25 [June 1860]

Summary

Encloses arrow-heads.

Comments on gestation in dogs.

Mentions BAAS meeting at Oxford.

Etty’s illness.

Criticises views of J. W. Dawson on organic and geological change.

The problems of distinguishing varieties and species.

Discusses facts explained by his theory.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.220)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2843

To John Obadiah Westwood   25 June [1860]

Summary

Would like to borrow the bees that, as reported in Gardeners’ Chronicle, were sent to JOW with pollen-masses of orchids sticking to them. CD has never seen a bee visit an orchid. He believes he could identify the genus and perhaps species of the orchids the pollen comes from.

His health is too bad to attend the meeting [of British Association for the Advancement of Science].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Obadiah Westwood
Date:  25 June [1860]
Classmark:  Oxford University Museum (Hope Entomological collections)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2844

To J. D. Hooker   26 [June 1860]

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Summary

Going for hydropathy. Too ill for Oxford BAAS meeting.

Pollination by minute insects.

CD proves his view regarding Goodenia stigmatic surfaces by dissection and following pollen-tubes up to grains.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 [June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 63
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2846

From Frederick Bond   26 June 1860

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Summary

Hopes to make observations on moths pollinating clovers.

Author:  Frederick Bond
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 June 1860
Classmark:  DAR 76 (ser. 2): 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2847

To Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer   [20 June 1860]

Summary

Is it physically possible for moths to eat the pollen of Mercurialis? Believes moths may visit the smaller clovers to suck the nectar.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer
Date:  [20 June 1860]
Classmark:  Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer, 30 June 1860, p. 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2848

To A. G. More    [30 June 1860]

Summary

Asks about removal of pollen-masses in bee orchid.

Will return home on 5th and go to Charles Langton’s on the 9th.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  [30 June 1860]
Classmark:  Royal Irish Academy (A. G. More papers RIA MS 4 B 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2849

To J. D. Hooker   19 [June 1860]

Summary

CD writes of his admiration for pollination contrivances in Gymnadenia. Ask George Bentham whether this plant should be removed from genus Orchis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  19 [June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 69 (EH 88206052)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3290
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