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To J. D. Hooker   14 May [1860]

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Summary

Instructs JDH on how to pollinate Leschenaultia.

Evidence of Leschenaultia and the dioecious condition of cowslips and Auricula is making necessity of insect pollination "clear and clearer".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 55
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2800

To J. S. Henslow   14 May [1860]

Summary

Thanks JSH for his defence [see 2794].

He is not hurt for long by what his attackers say. His conclusions were arrived at after long study. He has certainly erred, but not so much as "Sedgwick and Co." think.

Asks JSH to send names of plants that vary greatly in length of pistil.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  14 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A70–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2801

To J. D. Hooker   15 [May 1860]

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Summary

Lyell, de facto, first to stress importance of geological changes for geographical distribution.

Asa Gray has given CD too much credit for theories of geographical distribution.

Reaction to hostile criticism

and debt to Lyell, Huxley, JDH, and W. B. Carpenter.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 [May 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 56
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2802

To James Drummond   16 May 1860

Summary

Asks JD to observe Leschenaultia formosa to verify CD’s hypothesis of how it is fertilised. Also suggests an experiment to determine whether it is fertilised by nocturnal insects.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Drummond
Date:  16 May 1860
Classmark:  J. S. Battye Library of Western Australian History, State Library of Western Australia (Accession 2275A)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2803

From Henry Doubleday   16 May 1860

Summary

Answers CD’s questions about his experiments with primroses, cowslips, and oxlips. HD is aware experiments must often be repeated many times. Has never met with the oxlip except where primrose and cowslip grow together.

Author:  Henry Doubleday
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 162.2: 238
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2804

To J. S. Henslow   17 May [1860]

Summary

Sends characters by which he can divide all primroses and cowslips into what he suspects will be male and female plants. Believes these forms are first step in formation of a dioecious plant.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  17 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A72–3, A116
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2805

To Charles Lyell   18 May [1860]

Summary

Comments on enclosed letters from Asa Gray and Wallace [missing].

Discusses hybrid fertility in rabbits and hares, and pheasants and fowls.

Asks about paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen ["Über Beständigkeit u. Umwandlung der Arten", Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 10 (1853): 420–51].

Mentions criticism by Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Notes importance of CL and Hooker in defending Origin.

Comments on papers by D. A. Godron ["Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux", Acad. Stanislas Mem. Soc. Sci. Nancy (1853): 329–67].

Mentions receiving anonymous verses.

A Manchester newspaper lampoon shows CD has proved "might makes right" to be a universal law.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.212)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2806

To A. R. Wallace   18 May 1860

Summary

Pleasure in ARW’s approbation of the Origin. Other supporters among scientists. ARW’s generosity.

Attacks by Owen, Sedgwick, and others.

Anticipation of natural selection by Matthew in 1830.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  18 May 1860
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434: 21–23v)>
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2807

To Asa Gray   18 May [1860]

Summary

Bitter and incessant attacks on the Origin.

Any truth in it has been saved only by a small body of men like Lyell, AG, Hooker, and Huxley.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (14)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2808

To W. D. Fox   18 May [1860]

Summary

Attacks [on Origin] are "hot and heavy". Adam Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society opened a battery. J. S. Henslow defended in grand style.

Slow progress on bigger book.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 128)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2809

To John Murray   18 May [1860]

Summary

Thanks for six copies of Journal of researches [1860 ed.].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  Dunedin Public Library (Reed collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2810

To Williams & Norgate   18 May [1860]

Summary

Requests a copy of Unger 1852 (Versuch einer Geschichte der Pflanzenwelt; an attempt at a history of the vegetable kingdom).

Requests a copy of the issue of British and Foreign Medical Review which contains a review of Origin, if it is a different publication from British and Foreign Medical and Chirurgical Review

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  Lanier family (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2810F

To J. D. Hooker   20 May [1860]

Summary

Gives references to experiments on cowslip for W. H. Harvey.

Suggests possible sources of error in results. Feels evidence is overwhelming that cowslip and primrose are varieties.

Has received laudatory verses on the Origin from some botanist; suspects Francis Boott.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  20 May [1860]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2811

To Charles Lyell   22 May [1860]

Summary

Mentions American edition of Origin.

A "savage" review [by John Duns] in North British Review [32 (1860): 455–68].

Comments on views of G. H. K. Thwaites on the survival of simple forms as a problem in his theory.

Mentions imperfection of geological record.

Marine origin of coal.

Illness of Etty.

Encloses article by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.213)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2812

To J. D. Hooker   22 [May 1860]

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Summary

Floral anatomy.

Wallace’s capital response on reading Origin.

E. W. Binney has published on coal-plants living in marine waters ["On the origin of coal", Mem. Lit. & Philos. Soc. Manchester 2d ser. 8 (1848): 148–94], an old CD idea.

Waste of pollen in horse chestnut will make a good case against perfection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 [May 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 57
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2813

To Asa Gray   22 May [1860]

Summary

Opinions and reviews of Origin.

CD’s view on design in nature; although he does not believe in the necessity of design, he finds it hard to conclude that everything is the result of "brute force".

Comments on Owen’s review of Origin [Edinburgh Rev. 111 (1860): 487–532].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (26 and 37a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2814

To John Lubbock   25 May [1860]

Summary

Local affairs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  25 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 32 (EH 88206481)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2815

To J. D. Hooker   29 [May 1860]

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Summary

Convinced selection is the efficient cause. Less convinced of physical causes than JDH because he sees adaptation everywhere and that must be due to selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  29 [May 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 58
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2816

To John Lubbock   29 [May 1860]

Summary

Local affairs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  29 [May 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 40 (EH 88206484)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2817

To J. D. Hooker   30 May [1860]

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Summary

Harvey’s letter to JDH more accepting of natural selection than CD expected.

Battle over Origin is raging in the United States.

Weary of hostile reviews.

Doubts about going to Oxford [for BAAS meeting].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2818
Document type
letter (46)
Date
1860
05
01 (2)
02 (1)
03 (2)
04 (1)
05 (3)
07 (3)
08 (6)
10 (1)
11 (2)
12 (1)
13 (3)
14 (2)
15 (1)
16 (2)
17 (1)
18 (6)
20 (1)
22 (4)
25 (1)
29 (2)
30 (1)
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