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CD memorandum   July 1857


Memorandum about £250 investment in Patent Siliceous Stone Company, owned by David Thomas Ansted and Frederick Ransome.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  unknown
Date:  July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2115F

To J. S. Henslow   10 August [1857]


Delighted that JSH is coming to Down. Sends correct train time.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  10 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2132

From T. V. Wollaston   [November–December 1857]



He was unaware that varieties occurred proportionately more in large genera.

Recommends a work [Leonard Gyllenhaal, Insecta Suecica, 4 vols. (1808–27)] for tabulating varieties.

Lists "close geographical representatives of Europaean species" based on the species numbers [in T. V. Wollaston, Catalogue of the coleopterous insects of Madeira (1857)].

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Nov–Dec 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 16: 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2133

To J. D. Hooker   22 August [1857]



Tabulation of varieties goes on; very important as it shows the branching of forms. Mentions his principle of divergence.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2134

To W. E. Darwin   [before 29 October 1857]


Reports progress of work on the new rooms [at Down].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [before 29 Oct 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2135

To Asa Gray   5 September [1857]


Encloses an abstract of his ideas on natural selection and the principle of divergence; the "means by which nature makes her species".

Discusses varieties and close species in large and small genera, finding some data from AG in conflict with his expectations.

Has been observing the action of bees in fertilising kidney beans and Lobelia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  5 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (48)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2136

To J. D. Hooker   6 September [1857]



Some negative results in variety tabulation survey.

Galls on wild carrot.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 209
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2137

To Secretary, Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum   8 September [1857]


CD acknowledges honour of his election to the Academy.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum
Date:  8 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 200–202 )
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2138

To J. D. Hooker   11 September [1857]



Representative species may complicate tabulation of varieties.

Questions for Mr Anderson about horse colouring in Norway.

Has been writing an "audacious little discussion" to show that "organic beings are not perfect, only perfect enough to struggle with their competitors".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 211; DAR 115: 73a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2140

To T. H. Huxley   15 September [1857]


Thanks for three last lectures and the account of cirripedes.

Difficulty of classifying the higher groups.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  15 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 137)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2141

From Robert Schlagintweit   25 September 1857


Gives CD further details of the fertility of the offspring from cross of a yak and Indian cow, the so-called chooboos, whose fertility he has traced to the seventh generation [see Natural selection, pp. 437–8].

Author:  Robert Schlagintweit
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Sept 1857
Classmark:  DAR 177: 52 (fragile)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2142

To William Walmisley Baxter   23 September [1857–9?]


The returned gloves are similar to some he has already, and he would prefer a pair with stiffer bristles.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Walmisley Baxter
Date:  23 Sept [1857-9]
Classmark:  Lyon & Turnbull, Edinburgh, 4 February 2009
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2142F

To T. H. Huxley   26 September [1857]


Agassiz’s superficiality and wretched reasoning powers. But he stirred up Europe on glaciers. Lyell has been working on their effects – testing work of others.

CD believes "Natural Systems" ought to be simply genealogical. "Time will come when we shall have true genealogical trees of each great kingdom of nature."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  26 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 54)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2143

From T. H. Huxley   [before 3 October 1857]



On classification and possibilities of a scientific morphology and zoology. CD’s "pedigree business" is important for physiology but has nothing to do with pure zoology any more than human pedigree has to do with the census. Zoological classification is a census of the animal world.

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 3 Oct 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 205.5: 218
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2144

From A. R. Wallace   [27 September 1857]



Refers to CD’s letter of "May last". ARW’s views on order of succession of species are in accordance with CD’s.

Disappointed that his paper ["On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. 16 (1855): 184–96] elicited no discussion; now ARW is trying to prove it. Paper merely states the theory.

On black jaguars breeding inter se: ARW has never heard of a parti-coloured one.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27 Sept 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 47: 145
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2145

To W. B. Tegetmeier   29 September [1857]


Will collect no more pigeons. Is awaiting Burmese fowls’ skins coming via Berlin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  29 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2146

To W. E. Darwin   29 [October 1857]


Discusses WED’s future education, the work on the extension, and other domestic affairs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  29 [Oct 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2147

To J. D. Hooker   30 September [1857]



C. F. Ledebour [Flora rossica (1842–53)] particularly useful for variety tabulation. Results generally favourable.

Additions to Down House.

Last two chapters of MS took six months to write.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 210
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2148

To John Lubbock   [22 November 1857]


Huxley and William Sharpey praise JL’s paper [? on Daphnia, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 147 (1857): 79–100] at Philosophical Club.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [22 Nov 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 22 (EH 88206471)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2149

To T. H. Huxley   3 October [1857]


Thinks naturalists look for something further than Cuvier’s view of classification. Poses a theoretical problem on the classification of the races of man to prove that a genealogical system is best.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  3 Oct [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 139)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2150
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