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From J. D. Hooker   [26 June or 3 July 1856]

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Summary

Can no longer make out story of NW. American plants; consulting Asa Gray.

Questionable validity of seed-salting experiments.

Aristolochia and Viscum seem to shed pollen before flower opens.

Ray Society should only do translations.

Thomas Thomson in India has rediscovered Aldrovanda, a rare relative of Drosera.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 June or 3 July] 1856
Classmark:  DAR 104: 197
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1911

From T. V. Wollaston   [27 June 1856]

Summary

Madeiran insects. Regards the "Atlantic province" as a centre of the Coleoptera.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 137
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1912

From T. V. Wollaston   [c. 27 June 1856]

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Summary

On the relationship of the loss of the powers of flight [in Coleoptera] to increase of bulk.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 27 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 300
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1912A

From Charles Lyell   [1 July 1856]

Summary

To cast doubt on CD’s view that volcanic action is associated with elevation of land, CL suggests that local oscillations in strata underlying volcanoes could also explain how active volcanoes have uplifted fossil deposits of marine shells. Overall he is more inclined to believe that recent volcanoes belong to areas of subsidence rather than of elevation.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 July 1856]
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1915A

From John Henry Gurney   2 July 1856

Summary

Hybrids of Phasianus versicolor breed freely between themselves as well as with common pheasants. Has been assured that hybrids between mallards and pintails are sometimes fertile inter se.

Author:  John Henry Gurney
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 259
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1916

From J. D. Hooker   10 July 1856

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Summary

[T. Bell Salter’s?] "hybrid" Epilobium a false claim.

Admires Huxley’s response to Falconer [see 1904].

Tristan da Cunha plant list, requested by CD, supports JDH’s position [on continental extension?].

Chilean plants not exceptional.

JDH considers parallels between Australian Alps and European plants strong evidence for multiple creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 96–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1923

From S. P. Woodward   15 July 1856

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Summary

Has reduced 20 Cyrena species to geographical varieties of one species, Cyrena fluminalis. Hooker is reducing Indian flora at the rate of 19 to 1.

Recommends W. H. Harvey’s Seaside book [1849] and Charles Pickering’s Races of man [1850].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 304
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1927

From S. P. Woodward   [15 July 1856]

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Summary

Lists Lusitanian shells with wide ranges beyond that geographical province.

Antiquity and elevation of land mass is more important than latitude for the distribution of shells.

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 305
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1928

From John Richardson   17 July 1856

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Summary

Responds to CD’s questions about the geographical distribution of freshwater fishes.

Author:  John Richardson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 July 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 285
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1929

From Asa Gray   [early August 1856]

Summary

Believes intermediate varieties are generally less numerous in individuals than the two states that they connect.

Discusses the difficulties of deciding what is the typical form of a species

and gives some opinions on the variability of introduced species compared with indigenous species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Aug 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 93
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1934

From J. S. Henslow   2 August 1856

Summary

One plant in self-sown patch of Aegilops has assumed a triticoidal character; JSH feels it may be an example of Aegilops passing to wheat.

Author:  John Stevens Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 166: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1936

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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Summary

JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

From J. D. Dana   8 September 1856

Summary

Responds to CD’s query about the blind fauna of Mammoth Cave.

Gives information from L. Agassiz. Distribution of Crustacea, especially along southern coastlines.

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 269 (Letters), DAR 162: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1951

From Peter Wallace   10 September 1856

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Summary

Reports on the naturalised animal life of Ascension.

Author:  Peter Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 261
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1953

From Victor de Robillard    20 September 1856

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Summary

C. T. Beke has communicated to the Mauritius Natural History Society a letter he received from CD. VdeR attempts to answer questions on transport of seeds by the ocean.

Author:  Victor de Robillard
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 286
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1956

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

From J. D. Hooker   [early December 1856]

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Summary

Podostemaceae flowering under water.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Dec 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 149
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1966

From William Freeman Daniell   8 October – 7 November 1856

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Summary

Responds to CD’s queries on Sierra Leone: fertility of European animals introduced to W. Africa, relationship of health and complexion of Europeans, etc.

Author:  William Freeman Daniell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Oct–7 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1970

From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

From J. D. Hooker   9 November 1856

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Summary

JDH approves MS section on geographical distribution.

Never felt so shaky about species before.

His objections to some mechanisms of distribution that CD proposes.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 105–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1983
Document type
letter (69)
Addressee
Darwin, C. R.[X]
Date
1856
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02 (4)
03 (5)
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05 (5)
06 (9)
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