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To G. R. Waterhouse   29 August [1854]


Sends fossil cirripedes for the museum’s collection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Robert Waterhouse
Date:  29 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (Archives DF PAL/100/7/)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1583

To John Lubbock   [September 1854]


Sends beetle he cannot identify.

Reading J. O. Westwood [Introduction to the modern classification of insects (1839–40)] has reawakened his passion for entomology.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [Sept 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 8 (EH 88206457)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1585

To J. S. Henslow   2 September [1854]


Sends his comments on JSH’s MS on cirripedes ["On typical objects in natural history", Rep. BAAS (1855): 108–26].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  2 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Sutro Library, California State Library, San Francisco (Crocker collection: folder #11)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1586

To T. H. Huxley   2 September [1854]


Second Living Cirripedia volume published. Asks THH’s advice on presentation copies for continental naturalists.

THH’s review of Vestiges of creation in [Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)]. CD is almost as unorthodox on species as the author of Vestiges, but hopes not quite so unphilosophical.

Hopes L. Agassiz was sounder on embryological stages than THH thinks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  2 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1587

To J. D. Hooker   7 September [1854]



On individuality.

Huxley’s review exquisite, but too severe on Vestiges; sorry for ridicule of Agassiz’s embryonic fishes.

Stonesfield mammals.

J. O. Westwood deserves Royal Society Medal.

Will begin species work in a few days.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 124
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1588

To Japetus Steenstrup   7 September [1854]


Offers to send collection of cirripedes to Copenhagen Museum in return for assistance in his research. Mentions publication of Living Cirripedia, vol. 2.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johannes Japetus Smith (Japetus) Steenstrup
Date:  7 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen (NKS 3460 4to); Natural History Museum of Denmark
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1589

To T. H. Huxley   8 September [1854]


Agrees with THH on metamorphosis of branchiae of Balanus, and on his view of Owen.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  8 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 11)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1590

To A. A. Gould   9 September [1854]


Returns cirripede specimens to AAG. Encloses specimens for Louis Agassiz in same box.

Since AAG is a member of the Ray Society, will not send him a copy of Living Cirripedia, vol. 2.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  9 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Augustus A. Gould papers, 1831–66 MS Am 1210: 225)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1591

To T. H. Huxley   13 September [1854]


Thanks for help on presentation copies of Living Cirripedia, vol. 2.

Suggests he examine cementing apparatus of Balanus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  13 Sept [1854]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 16)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1592

From Richard Thomas Lowe   19 September 1854



The land shells, both fossil and recent, of Madeira and Porto Santo have features peculiar to them, so RTL would have no difficulty in identifying them.

Author:  Richard Thomas Lowe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Sept 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 392
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1593

To John Higgins   5 October [1854]


Discusses lost investment opportunity.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  5 Oct [1854]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/1/82)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1594

To George Henry Turnbull   28 October [1854]


CD writes as the Treasurer of the Down Coal and Clothing Club and the Down Friendly Club, requesting subscriptions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henry Turnbull
Date:  28 Oct [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 2 (EH 88206054)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1595

To J. D. Hooker   [November–December 1854]



[Recto:] CD defines "aberrant genus".

[Verso:] JDH’s list of families, [presumably] with aberrant genera, and [presumably] the number of species in each genus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [Nov–Dec 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 222a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1596

To J. D. Hooker   5 November [1854]



Congratulates JDH on receipt of Royal Medal.

CD gathering facts on aberrant genera of insects.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 152
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1597

From G. R. Waterhouse   11 November 1854



Sends list of aberrant forms of Curculionidae.

Discusses in detail the artificiality of Carl Johan Schönherr’s classification. Sound generalisations about geographical distribution depend on sound classifications. Warns against putting too much faith in current catalogues.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Nov 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 401
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1598

To Daniel Sharpe   12 November [1854]


Regrets he cannot come to hear DS’s paper ["On the structure of Mont Blanc", Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 11 (1855): 11–27]. Has a lively interest in the subject.

Edward Forbes has misrepresented his view on foliation and cleavage [Athenæum 30 Sept 1854].

CD is convinced DS’s view will replace Huttonian and Lyellian view of metamorphic schists.

Recommends H. C. Sorby’s paper [probably "On the origin of slaty cleavage", Edinburgh New Philos. J. 55 (1853): 137–50].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Sharpe
Date:  12 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  University of Chicago Library, Special Collections Research Center
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1599

From J. D. Hooker   [6 November 1854]



Fossil leaves from Disko Island.

JDH to begin working out the botanical geography of the polar sea.

Has not forgotten CD’s request on aberrant species.

Has taken a house on Richmond Hill.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [6 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 385
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1600

To J. D. Hooker   15 November [1854]



Calculating small number of species in aberrant genera of insects and plants.

Joachim Barrande’s "Colonies", Élie de Beaumont’s "lines of Elevation", Forbes’s "Polarity" make CD despair, as these theories lead to conclusions opposite to CD’s from the same classes of facts.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 156
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1601

To J. S. Henslow   17 November [1854]


Asks JSH to inquire about drift-wood at Kerguelen Land.

Hooker’s observation on similarity of Kerguelen plant species to those of Tierra del Fuego strikes CD as a great anomaly, so he is searching for an answer, "however improbable".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  17 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.109)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1602

To Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell   17 November 1854


Requests authoritative information on erratic boulders and marks of glaciers in New Zealand, and especially in southern islands.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell
Date:  17 Nov 1854
Classmark:  Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand (MS-Papers-0083-268)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1603
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