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To J. W. Lubbock   28 March [1854]


Distressed to find himself in conflict with JWL on appointment of a Guardian [for the parish].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John William Lubbock, 3d baronet
Date:  28 Mar [1854]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (LUB: D20)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1563

To J. E. Gray   28 March [1854]


Asks for parts of The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror [1844–75].

Asks about the arrangement of cirripedes at the Museum; hopes JEG will keep CD’s names.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Edward Gray
Date:  28 Mar [1854]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (Zoology letters 2: 56)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1564

To Robert Patterson   6 April [1854]


He has returned William Thompson’s MSS and, he believes, all his specimens of Cirripedia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Patterson
Date:  6 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Praeger 1935, p. 713
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1565

To John Higgins   9 April [1854]


Discusses his investments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  9 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/1/79)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1566

To William Robert Grove   26 April [1854]


Is honoured by his election to the Philosophical Club [of the Royal Society].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Robert Grove
Date:  26 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Royal Institution of Great Britain (Grove Papers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1567

To Josiah Wedgwood III   1 May [1854]


About share transfers, involving JW as a trustee of CD/Emma marriage trust.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Josiah Wedgwood, III
Date:  1 May [1854]
Classmark:  V&A / Wedgwood Collection (MS W/M 1028)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1568

To S. P. Woodward   6 May 1854


CD expresses his inability to accept the view that the Hippuritidae are in any way a connecting link between the oysters and the barnacles.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  6 May 1854
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (1909: 9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1570

From J. D. Hooker   [24 June 1854]



Birth of JDH’s second child.

Asks CD’s view of "highness" and "lowness" in animals. Gives his own for plants; extent of deviation from type, e.g., floral parts deviating from leaf.

Reading B. C. Brodie’s Psychological inquiries [1854].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 202–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1572

To J. D. Hooker   27 [June 1854]



CD gives his definition of "highness" and "lowness" as "morphological differentiation" from a common embryo or archetype. JDH’s view, with which CD agrees when it can be applied, is the same as Milne-Edwards’, i.e., the physiological division of labour. There is little agreement among zoologists and CD admits his own lack of clarity.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  27 [June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 121
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1573

To Edward Sabine   28 June [1854]


Is unequal to taking chair as President of Natural History Section of BAAS meeting in Liverpool. Very little fatigue or excitement brings on swimming of head, nausea, and other symptoms.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Sabine
Date:  28 June [1854]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (Sa: 386)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1574

To J. D. Hooker   29 [May 1854]



CD "lectures" JDH on taking care of his health.

CD’s pleasure in London trip.

CD and Emma have taken season tickets to Crystal Palace.

Edward Forbes’s "Introductory Lecture" is the best CD ever read.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  29 [May 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1575

From J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1854]



JDH on "highness" of Coniferae: they are genuine Dicotyledons, not a link to cryptogams; that is a geologists’ fallacy. Thus they are highest plants in Carboniferous.

Does not agree with CD’s "elastic" species theory. Long correspondence with Lyell on this.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [29 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 383
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1576

To J. D. Hooker   7 July [1854]



CD’s view requires only that ancient organisms resemble embryological stages of existing ones. Thus "highness" in plants is difficult to evaluate because they have no larval stages. Would compare highest members of two groups, rather than archetype, to determine which group was higher. Against Forbes’s polarity and parallelism.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 July [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 123
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1577

To Thomas Salt   12 July [1854]


Thanks for money paid into his account. Has not received interest payment from Lord Powis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  12 July [1854]
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold by Spink’s (dealers), July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1577F

To J. A. H. de Bosquet   13 August [1854]


Thanks JAHdeB for his present of two volumes [Description des Entomostracés fossiles des terrains tertiaires de la France et de la Belgique (1852) and "Les Crustacés fossiles du Limbourg" (1854)]. CD was interested in the remarks on geographical distribution of the Entomostraca.

CD’s second volume for the Ray Society [Living Cirripedia] is finished but not yet published.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Augustin Hubert de Bosquet
Date:  13 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Lucy T. Eisenberg (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1578

To Robert Patterson   21 August [1854]


Has found a half dozen [cirripede] specimens belonging to William Thompson and a few MS notes. Asks for instructions for sending them to RP.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Patterson
Date:  21 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Praeger 1935, p. 713
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1579

To Mrs Stutchbury    22 August 1854


Arranges to return a collection of cirripedes which belongs to her husband [Samuel Stutchbury].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hannah Louisa Stutchbury
Date:  22 Aug 1854
Classmark:  Matthews 1982, p. 262
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1579A

To Albany Hancock   24 August [1854]


Can AH spare Alcippe specimens for British Museum?

C. S. Bate has found Alcippe off Plymouth.

Discusses returning specimens to AH.

Owes to AH the discussion of powers of excavation of Verruca in Living Cirripedia [vol. 2 (1854)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  24 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1580

From J. D. Hooker   25 August 1854



JDH and F. W. Binney identify Calamites specimens as pith casts. They are cryptogams related to, but higher than, Lycopodiaceae and contradict progression.

Insects found in coal.

Lyell says Stonesfield slate marsupials are actually placentals.

JDH reading Alexander Braun on individuality ["Das Individuum der Pflanze in seinem Verhältniss zur Species", Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (Phys. Kl.) (1853): 19–122].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Aug 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 384
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1581

To John Price   26 [August 1854]


Discusses specimen of Balanus crenatus.

Sorry JP’s children are ill.

Will come to Liverpool if well [for meeting of BAAS].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Price
Date:  26 [Aug 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 272
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1582
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