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From J. D. Hooker   7 November 1862



JDH admits he wrote Gardeners’ Chronicle and Natural History Review articles on orchids [Gard. Chron. (1862): 789–90, 863, 910; Nat. Hist. Rev. n.s. 2 (1862): 371–6].

JDH’s objections to CD’s idea of how Greenland was repopulated. Temperate Greenland has as Arctic a flora as Arctic Greenland – a fact of astounding force. Why should certain Scandinavian species be absent? Migration by sea-currents can no more account for the present distribution in Greenland than can special creation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 68–9, 73–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3797

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 8 November 1862]


Asks whether T. A. Knight’s tall blue and white marrow peas were raised by Knight himself.

Also asks whether anyone who has saved seed peas grown close to other kinds observed that the succeeding crop came up "untrue" or crossed? CD would expect that such crossing would occasionally happen.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 8 Nov 1862]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 8 November 1862, p. 1052
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3798

From Asa Gray   10 November 1862


AG has Cypripedium to send to CD.

Civil War and English feelings.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 165: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3799

From John Scott   11 November 1862


CD is mistaken in considering Acropera unisexual, with only male flowers [Orchids, pp. 203–10]. JS has successfully fertilised two A. loddigesii flowers. One is ripening. Dissection of the other shows the pollen accomplishes fertilisation without contacting any stigmatic surface. Abortive ovules found in flowers that did not become fertilised when pollinated. JS suggests Acropera has both unisexual male and hermaphrodite flowers.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 177: 77
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3800

To J. D. Hooker   [10–]12 November [1862]



So JDH did write the Gardeners’ Chronicle review [of Orchids]! CD guessed it from the little slap at R. Brown.

Dawson’s lecture has nothing new. Absurd to assume Greenland under water during whole of glacial period. Suggests absence of certain plants in Greenland due to seeds not surviving in sea-water. Suggests an experiment on vitality in sea-water of plants that might be in Greenland. Is more willing to admit a Norway–Greenland land connection than most other cases.

Urges JDH to warn Tyndall on his glacial theory of valleys in Switzerland.

Is working on cultivated plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [10–]12 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3801

From J. D. Hooker   12 November 1862



Samuel Haughton was the prejudiced reviewer of the Origin. JDH’s opinion of SH.

Has heard from a W. African collector that P. B. Du Chaillu’s accounts [Explorations and adventures in equatorial Africa (1861)] are all false.

R. F. Burton has impudently stolen credit for Gustav Mann’s Cameroon expedition.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 75–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3802

From Robert Swinhoe   12 November 1862


Sends CD a specimen of the domestic pigeon of China.

Discusses a race of ducks he believes are hybrids between the Muscovy and Chinese domestic duck.

Author:  Robert Swinhoe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 177: 326
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3803

From Hugh Falconer   12 November [1862]


Sends paper on affinities of Plagiaulax ["On Plagiaulax from the Purbeck beds", Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 18 (1862): 348–69].

Author:  Hugh Falconer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3804

To John Scott   12 November [1862]


Discusses whether or not "male" Acropera bear fruit. JS’s interpretation of Acropera pollination is ingenious. Pollen-tubes of some cleistogamous flowers germinate in the anthers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  12 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 93: B7–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3805

To Hugh Falconer   14 November [1862]


Comments on HF’s paper on Plagiaulax from the Purbeck beds. Paper "dreadfully severe" on Owen.

"I am worse than ever in bearing any excitement."

Glad HF attacked Australian Mastodon. Never did believe in him.

Mentions Primula paper [Collected papers 2: 45–63].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hugh Falconer
Date:  14 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 27
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3806

From J. D. Hooker   [15 and] 20 November [1862]



Sends CD West Ireland soundings.

More detail on his review "a la Lindley" [see 3797].

Bates’s paper ["Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 23 (1862): 495–566] is capital.

Andrew Murray’s article plays into CD’s hands through sheer ignorance.

JDH is on Royal Society Council.

Has no recollection of applying natural selection to Polynesians. None but a German would dig out such a passage if it exists [see 3812].

Has caused Tyndall to modify his pseudo-geology.

Has not seen Duke of Argyll’s review [Edinburgh Rev. 116 (1862): 378–97]. [The Duke] did not understand Orchids the least little bit, nor the Origin, when JDH saw him.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 and 20 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 71–2, 79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3807

From John Scott   15 November [1862]


Appreciates CD’s acknowledging his letter and his comments on Acropera. Will send CD the Acropera capsule which is now maturing.

Experimenting on vegetable parthenogenesis.

Structure of Acropera.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3808

To P. G. King   16 November [1862]


J. C. Wickham, B. J. Sulivan, and Arthur Mellersh visited a fortnight ago.

Oldest son [William] now a banker.

Sends photograph.

Health too bad to see anyone at present. Rarely sees FitzRoy.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Gidley King
Date:  16 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  Mitchell Library, Sydney (MLMSS 3447/2 Item 3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3809

To Ludwig Büchner   17 November [1862]


Thanks LB for copy of his Aus Natur und Wissenschaft [1862]. Responds to LB’s comment [on Origin].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig (Ludwig) Büchner
Date:  17 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3810

From Asa Gray   17 November 1862


Flower structure of Cypripedium insigne.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 165: 123
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3811

To J. D. Hooker   18 [November 1862]



A German scholar says JDH first applied natural selection to replacement of races of men, the ruder races of Polynesians yielding to civilised Europeans. CD cannot remember reading this.

Warns JDH to take care Welwitschia does not turn into a case of barnacles and consume years instead of months.

In what months do flowers appear in Acropera loddigesia and A. luteola? CD is alarmed by John Scott’s observations on them, which differ from his own. "I am very uneasy."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 [Nov 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 170
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3812

From Adam Fitch   18 November 1862



In reply to CD’s letter, "Peas" in Gardeners’ Chronicle [8 Nov 1862; Collected papers 2: 70] sends information on the duration of some of A. Knight’s crossed varieties.

Author:  Adam Fitch
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Nov 1862
Classmark:  DAR 77: 166–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3813

To John Scott   19 November [1862]


Praises JS’s experimenting.

Has he ever studied the relative fertility of varieties? CD very interested in this subject.

Discusses Acropera.

Wants to quote JS on Zea [Variation 1: 321].

CD sends his Primula paper [Collected papers 2: 45–63].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  19 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 93: B11–B14, DAR 147: 431
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3814

From John Scott   [20 November – 2 December 1862]


JS does not fully accept natural selection.

Has never raised oxlips from cowslips or primroses; reports of such must be cases of crossing.

Discusses relative fertility of varieties, self-fertility of hybrids, and plans for experiments on enhanced hybrid fertility.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [20 Nov – 2 Dec 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3815

To H. W. Bates   20 November [1862]


Just finished HWB’s paper ["Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 23 (1862): 495–566], one of the most remarkable he has ever read. Found mimetic cases and connection of facts marvellous. Finds equally important the facts on variation and segregation of complete and semi-complete species. Questions whether insect mimicry is not due to small size and defencelessness. Criticises title of paper. Mentions that Wallace will appreciate it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  20 Nov [1862]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3816
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Darwin, C. R.[X]
Hooker, J. D. (84)
Gray, Asa (37)
Darwin, W. E. (32)
Oliver, Daniel (23)
Bates, H. W. (22)
Lubbock, John (20)
Oxenden, G. C. (17)
Huxley, T. H. (15)
Murray, John (b) (11)
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Scott, John (10)
Babington, C. C. (8)
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Innes, J. B. (8)
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