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To P. L. Sclater   22 May [1860–81]


CD has signed the enclosed with great pleasure.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  22 May [1860-81]
Classmark:  John Wilson (dealer) (1987)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13839A

To Cottage Gardener   [after 8 May 1860]


Inquires whether "a Devonshire Bee-keeper" [T. W. Woodbury] who reported a common drone entering a hive of Ligurian bees [Cottage Gard. 24 (1860): 94] believes, with Andrew Knight, that queen bees are seldom fertilised by their own blood-relations. Asks how far a hive of common bees was from that of the Ligurians.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Cottage Gardener
Date:  [after 8 May 1860]
Classmark:  Cottage Gardener 24 (1860): 143
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2777

From B. P. Brent   [May–June 1860?]


Cannot supply a case of atavism in canaries.

Will lend CD back issues of Cottage Gardener.

Cites case of bird (tumbler hen) laying egg in another’s nest.

Author:  Bernard Peirce Brent
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [May–June 1860?]
Classmark:  DAR 160.3: 297
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2778

To Roderick Impey Murchison   1 May [1860]


Much obliged for note from Alexander von Keyserling. Geologist going one inch with CD more important than naturalist going two or three.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st baronet
Date:  1 May [1860]
Classmark:  The British Library (Surrogate RP 7400)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2779

From Charles Lyell   2 May 1860


It is small comfort to be told you will be succeeded in lineal descent by angels when Lamarck and Darwin have made your ancestors without souls. However, can the progressive system not be seen as most consonant with a higher destiny if all spiritual natures advance? The link of common descent to inferior beings like idiots should be obvious. Infants die before they become responsible. Pope’s An essay on Man [1733] shows how man was "In doubt to deem himself a God or Beast", without speculation on his genealogy.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 May 1860
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS, Charles Lyell’s journal V, pp. 176–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2779A

From Andrew Murray   3 May 1860



Responds to CD’s comments on his review of the Origin. Regrets lack of space often causes him to do injustice to CD and to himself. Agrees to alter some of his statements

and offers some evidence for his opinions on plant hybridising.

Sends references to papers mentioning cave insects. Paussi are not blind, as CD thinks, though some other insects that live in ants’ nests are. Each country over the world has its peculiar species of Paussi, though they all live in ants’ nests. "Physical condition I say – Natural Selection you say".

Author:  Andrew Dickson (Andrew) Murray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 47: 153–153a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2780

From Henry Doubleday   3 May 1860


Has read Origin with pleasure.

Has performed many experiments which confirm his opinion that primrose, oxlip, and cowslip are three distinct species.

Author:  Henry Doubleday
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 162.2: 237
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2781

To Charles Lyell   4 May [1860]


Is sending CL an arrow-head. Says John Lubbock tells of vast numbers of flint tools in peat in France. Urges CL to conduct further research on the subject.

Comments on paper by J. S. Newberry concerning palaeozoic deposits in America [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18]

and on A. von Keyserling’s view of species change.

Mentions J. W. Salter’s chart arranging Spirifer.

Comments on Andrew Murray’s paper on the Origin ["On Mr Darwin’s theory of the origin of species", Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91].

A Manchester newspaper article says CD has proved "might is right".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.210)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2782

From J. S. Henslow   5 May 1860



Reports to CD on what he has found out about Elodea growing near Cambridge.

Sedgwick is speaking at [Cambridge] Philosophical Society on CD’s "supposed errors" [Camb. Herald & Huntingdonshire Gaz. 19 May 1860, pp. 3–4].

JSH wonders how Owen can be so savage toward CD’s views when his own are "to a certain extent of the same character".

Author:  John Stevens Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 186: 47
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2783

To Andrew Murray   5 May [1860]


Thanks for AM’s kindness.

CD did not understand him about "prepotency".

With respect to cave animals CD believes that on reflection AM will admit "that on creation doctrine, there has been surprising diversity for such similar habitation".

Has heard from A. von Keyserling who "makes no difficulty about imperfection of Geological Record".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Andrew Dickson (Andrew) Murray
Date:  5 May [1860]
Classmark:  R. D. Pyrah
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2784

To J. D. Hooker   7 May [1860]



To understand Leschenaultia pollination CD requires field observations in the native country.

Has observed two forms of cowslips, which he calls male and female. The same two forms are found in primroses.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 52
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2785

To T. H. Huxley   7 May [1860]


Observations on changes in physical proportions of pigeons.

The Saturday Review of 5 May has a defence of CD and THH by "a jolly good fellow".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  7 May [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 117)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2786

From Charles Lyell   7 May 1860



Saw Salter’s Spirifer specimens; a very good proof of indefinite modifiability.

Beginning to think gap between Cambrian and Lower Silurian enormous.

Édouard Lartet to give paper before Geological Society ["On coexistence of man with certain extinct quadrupeds", Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 16 (1859–60): 471–5].

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 396
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2787

To Charles Lyell   8 [May 1860]


Did not know about separation between Silurian and Cambrian.

Cannot attend Geological Society meeting.

Etty [Henrietta Darwin] ill.

Sedgwick in his attack at Cambridge Philosophical Society states "there must be [on CD’s theory] large genera not varying".

Discusses migration of plants and animals from Old World to New.

Views of Asa Gray on Aster.

Mentions flora of coal period.

Has been elected to Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 [May 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.211)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2788

To W. B. Tegetmeier   8 May [1860]


Thanks WBT for observations on colours of newly-hatched pigeons of different breeds. Asks if breeders have noticed any differences in lengths of time eggs were incubated in different breeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  8 May [1860]
Classmark:  Yale University: Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (Yale Collection of American Literature: De Forest Family Papers (YCAL MSS 582) Box 2, folder 58, item 82
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2790

To J. S. Henslow   8 May [1860]


Comments on Richard Owen’s review of the Origin [in Edinburgh Rev. 111 (1860): 487–532]. Considers Owen unfair to CD and most ungenerous toward Hooker.

Expects Sedgwick to be fierce against him. Sedgwick also misrepresented CD in his Spectator review [24 Mar and 7 Apr 1860].

Compares natural selection to the undulatory theory of light as a hypothesis explaining a large number of facts.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  8 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A67–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2791

From William Masters   8 May 1860



Observations on hybrids from crossed cabbage varieties.

Author:  William Masters
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 76 (ser. 2): 166–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2792

From H. C. Watson   10 May 1860



Returns reviews of Origin.

F. J. Pictet [Arch. Sci. Phys. & Nat. n.s. 7 (1860): 231–55] goes further than he himself realises.

Naturalists will resist CD’s views until faith in certain "impassable" barriers between existent species is shaken.

Gives CD an instance of convergence.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 47: 160–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2793

To J. D. Hooker   11 May [1860]



Dissection of Leschenaultia convinces CD insect agency necessary for self-fertilisation in this case.

Primroses and cowslips seem universally to occur in two forms. Very curious to see which plants set seed.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 May [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 53
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2795

From John Cattell   12 May 1860



Cannot provide plants CD requested.

Has sowed several kinds of lettuce seed near each other and has never observed them to cross naturally [see Cross and self-fertilisation, p. 173 n.].

Author:  John Cattell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 May 1860
Classmark:  DAR 77: 171–2a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2796
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