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To Charles Lyell   [November–December 1851]

Summary

Detailed critique of CL’s A manual of elementary geology [3d ed. (1851), used in editing 4th ed. (1852)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [Nov–Dec 1851]
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1384

To Charles Lyell   15 February [1853]

Summary

Returns Lake Superior [1850], which he already has received from Agassiz. Thanks for pamphlets by C. B. Adams [on Mollusca, Contrib. Conchol. 10 (1851): 189–206; 11 (1852): 207–15].

Describes his dissection of an unusual cirripede [Alcippe lampas] with 12 males attached [see Living Cirripedia 2: 556, 558].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.103)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1502

To Charles Lyell   24 March [1853]

Summary

Volcanic activity of Mt Kilauea as described by Dana [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 9 (1850): 347–64]. Discusses the mechanics of volcanic eruption. Disputes view of William Hopkins that simultaneous action by volcanoes of different heights must come from separate lava sources. Notes relationship of continental elevation to volcanic action.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  24 Mar [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.105)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1508

To Charles Lyell   7 June [1853]

Summary

Describes meeting of Geological Society [1 June 1853].

Mentions his criticism of Murchison’s lecture on flints.

Describes Robert Chambers’ "On the glacial phenomena in Scotland" [Edinburgh New Philos. J. 54 (1853): 229–82].

Mentions controversial election of members to the Royal Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  7 June [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.107)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1518

To Charles Lyell   18 February [1854]

Summary

Comments on CL’s plan to visit Tenerife.

Discusses inclination of strata on islands and around mountains.

Personal affairs of several scientists.

Visit by Henslow.

Notes publication by Hooker [Himalayan journals (1854)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 Feb [1854]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.108)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1553

To Charles Lyell   10 January [1855]

Summary

Discusses views of Daniel Sharpe on foliation and cleavage. Recalls his own previous discussion [in South America].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Jan [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.110)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1626

To Charles Lyell   14 January [1855]

Summary

Has found a house on Baker Street to take for a month.

Mentions Daniel Sharpe’s study of the Grampians.

Association of various metamorphic rocks and relationship of their foliation to their dip and strike. Discusses foliation of schists and its origin. Comments on fluidity of gneiss and schists.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Jan [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.111)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1630

To Charles Lyell   [21 January – 11 February 1855]

Summary

Relationship of schists to alternating beds of slate in western Tierra del Fuego and the Chonos Islands.

Comments on Sharpe’s theory of curved cleavage planes.

Example of metamorphosis in a "clay-slate porphyry region". Importance of previous lines of cleavage and stratification in foliation of metamorphosed rock.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [21 Jan – 11 Feb 1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.112)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1633

To Charles Lyell   8 May [1855]

Summary

Mentions his paper ["Transportal of erratic boulders", Collected papers 1: 218–27]. Discusses ice-borne rock. Reference to unpublished paper on icebergs [?"Power of icebergs to make grooves", Collected papers 1: 252–5]. Remarks on scoring by icebergs. Comments on judgment of theories by Geological Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 May [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.113)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1679

To Charles Lyell   4 November [1855]

Summary

Comments on two pamphlets by John Bachman [probably Continuation of the review of "Nott and Gliddon’s types of mankind" (1855) and An examination of the characteristics of genera and species as applicable to the doctrine of the unity of the human race (1855)].

CD’s pigeon breeding and plant hybridization experiments.

Invites CL to visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Nov [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.115)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1772

To Charles Lyell   21 April [1856]

Summary

Speculates about cause of inclination in unusual columns of lava. Suggests CL check with William Hopkins about sliding movements in viscid matter.

Comments on CL’s expedition to Madeira.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  21 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.126)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1855

To Charles Lyell   3 May [1856]

Summary

Discusses possibility of publishing a sketch of his views.

Comments on CL’s letter [1862].

Mentions various geological topics.

Asks to borrow publication by Heer.

Mentions flight of Colymbetes over ocean.

Recalls visit by Wollaston.

Notes views of Hooker and Huxley on species.

Mentions ability of ducks to transport plant seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 May [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.127)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1866

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

To Charles Lyell   25 June [1856]

Summary

Criticises at length the concept of submerged continents attaching islands to the mainland in the recent period. Notes drastic alteration of geography required, the dissimilar species on opposite shores of continents, and differences between volcanic islands and mountains of mainland areas. Admits sea-bed subsidence, but not enough to engulf continents. Denies that theory can explain island flora and fauna.

Considers Edward Forbes’s idea a check on study of dissemination of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 June [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.132)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1910

DCP-LETT-1912B

Summary

Cancelled: appears in 1917.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  Charles Lyell’s notebook 213: 101–2?
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1912B

To Charles Lyell   5 July [1856]

Summary

Discusses theory of submerged continental extensions. Objects that if it is applied to one island, it must be applied to all. Admits that some volcanoes may have been associated with subsidence, in contrast to his former view. Cites evidence from S. American Cordillera. Doubts that elevation associated with volcanoes is merely local, and that great ocean areas are necessarily sinking.

Says he will make his essay [on species] as complete as possible and will discuss CL’s Principles.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.133)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1917

DCP-LETT-1919A

Summary

Cancelled: appears in 1920.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 July [1856]
Classmark:  Charles Lyell’s notebook II: 95–8?
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1919A

To Charles Lyell   8 July [1856]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of [Matthew Fontaine?] Maury’s map.

Discusses possibility of submerged continental extension including Madeira, Canaries, and Azores.

Mentions icebergs as carriers of European plants.

Hooker’s work on Antarctic flora.

Comments on coolness of tropics in glacial period and consequent migrations. Hooker’s views on this.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 July [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.134)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1920

To Charles Lyell   10 November [1856]

Summary

Illnesses of Mrs Horner and Emma Darwin.

Death of Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood.

Mentions work on his "Big Book" [Natural selection].

Remarks on J. A. H. de Bosquet’s discovery of a Chthamalus in the Chalk.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.140)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1984

To Charles Lyell   11 February [1857]

Summary

Discusses a proposed expedition to Australia. Urges collecting and investigating productions of isolated islands. Recommends dredging the sea-bottom.

Mentions keeping Helix pomatia alive in sea-water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Feb [1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.145)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2050
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