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To Charles Lyell   17 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses relationship between natural selection and more general laws. Law of gravity is not seen as requiring design. Mentions mathematicians’ judgment of probability.

Notes gestation periods for hounds.

Etty is somewhat better.

Mentions his paper on fertilisation of orchids by insects [Collected papers 2: 32–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.217)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2833

To Charles Lyell   20 [June 1860]

Summary

Blyth’s effort to raise money for a Chinese expedition.

Comments on free-will in animals.

Says natural selection is not in the same category with Huxley’s "force" and "matter".

Discusses remarkable variation in period of gestation in dogs and ducks.

Discusses Arctic flora.

Has been working on orchids; they beat woodpeckers in adaptation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.219)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2838

To Charles Lyell   25 [June 1860]

Summary

Encloses arrow-heads.

Comments on gestation in dogs.

Mentions BAAS meeting at Oxford.

Etty’s illness.

Criticises views of J. W. Dawson on organic and geological change.

The problems of distinguishing varieties and species.

Discusses facts explained by his theory.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.220)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2843

To Charles Lyell   5 [July 1860]

Summary

Glad CL plans trip to Amiens to investigate flints and post-glacial period.

Mentions support by Huxley, Hooker, and Lubbock at Oxford BAAS meeting. Asa Gray also goes on fighting.

Likes article by William Hopkins ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life", Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90].

Comments on hybrids of hare and rabbit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 [July 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.221)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2860

To Charles Lyell   30 July [1860]

Summary

Comments on BAAS meeting: "our side seems to have got on very well". Asa Gray, too, is fighting nobly.

Comments on review [by Samuel Wilberforce] in the Quarterly [Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions a favourable review in the London Review.

Wonders if German translation [of the Origin] by Bronn has drawn attention to the subject.

The Natural History Review to be edited by Huxley and others.

Expects CL’s book [Antiquity of man (1863)] to be a bombshell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  30 July [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.222)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2881

To Charles Lyell   11 August [1860]

Summary

Comments on his fear that "so many heavy guns fired by great men" might influence the public and scientists.

Sends CL the Owen-inspired Wilberforce review [Q. Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions defence of Origin by Asa Gray at American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Agassiz and Theophilus Parsons have poor criticisms ["Prof. Agassiz on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 142–54].

Lists other negative reviews by Rudolph Wagner ["An essay on classification by Louis Agassiz", Göttingische Gelehrte Anz. (1860) pt 2: 761–800], Charles Daubeny ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants, with particular reference to Mr Darwin’s work On the origin of species by natural selection", Rep. BAAS 30 (1860) pt 2: 109–10], and two anonymous ones (one favourable).

Huxley says K. E. von Baer "goes a long way with us".

Comments on "pipes" in chalk as evidence of geological processes still at work.

Is writing on origin of dog breeds [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.223)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2895

To Charles Lyell   28 August [1860]

Summary

The adultery of Lady [Harriet Spencer] Grey and Captain Keppell.

A new species of elephant discovered by Hugh Falconer.

Comments on excellent review by Asa Gray [Atlantic Monthly 6 (1860): 229–39].

Still believes dogs descended from several wild stocks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.224)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2900

To Charles Lyell   1 September [1860]

Summary

Discusses at length CL’s criticisms of natural selection.

Comments on possible former connection between the Galapagos and South America.

Discounts survival of mammals on atolls.

Discusses reptile origin of mammals.

Discounts development of a mammal on an island and the descent of mammals from a bird.

The antiquity of islands.

Comments on bats of New Zealand. Geographical distribution of seals. Discusses Amblyrhynchus.

Glad CL will read his MS on origin of dogs [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.225)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2903

To Charles Lyell   12 September [1860]

Summary

Additional response, at length, to CL’s criticisms of natural selection. Comments on failure of rodents to develop in Australia. Argues that most species become extinct and do not develop. Discusses variability, especially variability of rudimentary organs. Extinction among ammonites. Survival of Ornithorhynchus. Descent of marsupials and placentals. Emphasises embryological argument for descent of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.226)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2915

To Charles Lyell   23 [September 1860]

Summary

Hopes to get Asa Gray’s review of Origin republished.

Argues for single origin of mammals.

Encloses two phylogenetic diagrams indicating possible descent of mammals.

Comments on rodents, marsupials, and dingo in Australia,

and on a paper on the survival of stumps as a result of root grafting.

Argues that man had a single progenitor and consists of a single species.

Comments on destruction of non-white races.

Discusses introduction of rodents to islands by man.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  23 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.227)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2925

To Charles Lyell   26 [September 1860]

Summary

Mentions extinction on St Helena.

Madeira and Canary Island insects are found at Cape of Good Hope.

Regrets errors on dingo in his manuscript on the dog.

Discusses crosses among pigeons.

Compares development in birds and mammals.

Plans to write about other domestic animals.

Discusses races of early man.

Falconer’s discoveries of fossil elephants.

Comments on articles by Asa Gray.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  26 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.228)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2928

To Charles Lyell   28 [September 1860]

Summary

Discusses extinction of ammonites.

Discusses August Krohn’s cirripede research and Krohn’s correction of his own work.

Discusses origin of dog in connection with origin of man.

Comments on the guinea-pig in South America.

Notes K. E. von Baer’s view of species.

Mentions difficulty of crossing rabbit and hare.

Agrees with Hooker’s views on variation under cultivation and in nature.

Regrets use of term "natural selection", would now use "Natural Preservation".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.229)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2931

To Charles Lyell   3 October [1860]

Summary

Comments on letter from Jeffries Wyman.

Discusses reprinting reviews by Asa Gray.

Mentions views of W. S. Symonds on the geological record.

Discusses descent of turtles and tortoises.

The universality of variation.

Notes only a few species leave modified descendants.

Discusses Apteryx.

Variation among pigeons.

Comments on fertility among hybrids.

Does not agree that he makes natural selection do too much work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.230)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2935

To Charles Lyell   5 [October 1860]

Summary

Discusses views of T. V. Wollaston concerning island species related to those of mainland; possible land connection between islands and mainland.

Comments on bats of Atlantic islands.

Plant extinction on St Helena.

Experiments on Drosera.

Bronn’s objections [to the Origin] at end of his translation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 [Oct 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.231)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2938

To Charles Lyell   8 October [1860]

Summary

Encloses advertisement [for C. R. Bree, Species not transmutable (1860)].

Discusses Bronn’s chapter of criticisms.

Mentions variation in rats.

Has ordered book by Bree.

Discusses suggestion that southern corners of Australia may once have been islands.

Mentions "wild speculations" about change in earth’s axes.

CL’s ideas on variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.232)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2942

To Charles Lyell   20 November [1860]

Summary

Admires Edward Forbes’s theory of continental extensions, but it will discourage investigation of distribution.

Mentions Oswald Heer’s proposed map of Atlantis.

Discusses extinction of plants caused by the glacial era. Migration of plants and animals during glacial period.

Encourages CL’s work [on Antiquity of man (1863)].

Comments on unfriendly reviews. Asks CL’s opinion about including a reply to reviewers in next edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.233)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2989

To Charles Lyell   24 November [1860]

Summary

Comments on CL’s advice not to reply directly to reviews.

Describes work on his Drosera manuscript.

Work delayed on his "larger book" [Variation].

Comments at length on the evolutionary significance of Robert McDonnell’s investigations ["On an organ in the skate", Nat. Hist. Rev. (1861): 57–60].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  24 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.234)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2996

To Charles Lyell   25 November [1860]

Summary

Discusses elevation and subsidence of Europe.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.235)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2997

To Charles Lyell   4 December [1860]

Summary

Sale of Origin requires new edition [3d (Apr 1861)].

Further discussion of geological elevation and subsidence in Europe. Compares evidence to that of South America. His theory that semi-fluid matter underlies earth’s crust.

Mentions David Forbes’s explanation of South American nitrate deposits.

Has followed CL’s advice not to reply directly to reviewers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.236)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3006

To Charles Lyell   12 [March 1860]

Summary

Discusses the intellectual development of the ancient Greeks as an objection to evolution and gives his reply.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 [Mar 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.203)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5032
Document type
letter (40)
Author
Addressee
Lyell, Charles[X]
Correspondent
Date
1860
01 (3)
02 (6)
03 (2)
04 (3)
05 (4)
06 (6)
07 (2)
08 (2)
09 (5)
10 (3)
11 (3)
12 (1)
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