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To Charles Lyell   15 April [1860]

Summary

Has resolved not to correct Owen’s misrepresentations in his review of Origin.

Discusses at length the theological implications of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.208)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2761

To Charles Lyell   27 and 28 April [1860]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of paper by J. S. Newberry ["Notes on the ancient vegetation of N. America", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18].

Mentions reviews of the Origin.

Discusses evolution of the domestic dog, especially with respect to the views of Owen, Pallas, and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Mentions W. B. Carpenter’s views on taxonomy.

Discusses hybridisation of plants and animals.

Comments on progress in human evolution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 and 28 Apr 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.209)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2771

To Charles Lyell   4 May [1860]

Summary

Is sending CL an arrow-head. Says John Lubbock tells of vast numbers of flint tools in peat in France. Urges CL to conduct further research on the subject.

Comments on paper by J. S. Newberry concerning palaeozoic deposits in America [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18]

and on A. von Keyserling’s view of species change.

Mentions J. W. Salter’s chart arranging Spirifer.

Comments on Andrew Murray’s paper on the Origin ["On Mr Darwin’s theory of the origin of species", Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91].

A Manchester newspaper article says CD has proved "might is right".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.210)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2782

To Charles Lyell   8 [May 1860]

Summary

Did not know about separation between Silurian and Cambrian.

Cannot attend Geological Society meeting.

Etty [Henrietta Darwin] ill.

Sedgwick in his attack at Cambridge Philosophical Society states "there must be [on CD’s theory] large genera not varying".

Discusses migration of plants and animals from Old World to New.

Views of Asa Gray on Aster.

Mentions flora of coal period.

Has been elected to Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 [May 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.211)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2788

To Charles Lyell   18 May [1860]

Summary

Comments on enclosed letters from Asa Gray and Wallace [missing].

Discusses hybrid fertility in rabbits and hares, and pheasants and fowls.

Asks about paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen ["Über Beständigkeit u. Umwandlung der Arten", Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 10 (1853): 420–51].

Mentions criticism by Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Notes importance of CL and Hooker in defending Origin.

Comments on papers by D. A. Godron ["Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux", Acad. Stanislas Mem. Soc. Sci. Nancy (1853): 329–67].

Mentions receiving anonymous verses.

A Manchester newspaper lampoon shows CD has proved "might makes right" to be a universal law.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.212)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2806

To Charles Lyell   22 May [1860]

Summary

Mentions American edition of Origin.

A "savage" review [by John Duns] in North British Review [32 (1860): 455–68].

Comments on views of G. H. K. Thwaites on the survival of simple forms as a problem in his theory.

Mentions imperfection of geological record.

Marine origin of coal.

Illness of Etty.

Encloses article by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.213)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2812

To Charles Lyell   1 [June 1860]

Summary

Comments on review of Origin by Andrew Murray [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91] and views of William Hopkins on Origin ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life" Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90]. The attacks will tell heavily.

Mentions Blyth’s failure to receive appointment as naturalist to China expedition of 1860.

Encloses letter from Asa Gray.

Discusses gestation period in domesticated dogs.

Comments on hybrid fertility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.214)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2820

To Charles Lyell   6 June [1860]

Summary

Mentions Etty’s illness.

A "coarsely contemptuous" review of Origin by Samuel Haughton ["On the form of the cells made by various wasps and by the honey bee; with an appendix on the origin of species", Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Dublin 3 (1860): 128–40].

Comments on reception of Malthus’ ideas.

Says William Hopkins does not understand him.

Discusses problem of term "natural selection".

J. A. Lowell’s review of Origin [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Relationship between instinct and structure.

Discusses blindness of cave animals.

The fallacy of Andrew Murray and others; the slight importance of climate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  6 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.215)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2822

To Charles Lyell   14 [June 1860]

Summary

Mentions letters from Edward Blyth and William Hopkins.

Sees little in review of Origin by J. A. Lowell [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Sees only one sentence approaching natural selection in paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen. Emphasises importance of natural selection.

Comments on Agassiz’s view of species.

Cites account of flint tools in travel book by F. P. Wrangell [Narrative of an expedition to the Polar Sea (1840)]. Mentions Eskimo tools.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.216)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832

To Charles Lyell   17 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses relationship between natural selection and more general laws. Law of gravity is not seen as requiring design. Mentions mathematicians’ judgment of probability.

Notes gestation periods for hounds.

Etty is somewhat better.

Mentions his paper on fertilisation of orchids by insects [Collected papers 2: 32–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.217)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2833

To Charles Lyell   20 [June 1860]

Summary

Blyth’s effort to raise money for a Chinese expedition.

Comments on free-will in animals.

Says natural selection is not in the same category with Huxley’s "force" and "matter".

Discusses remarkable variation in period of gestation in dogs and ducks.

Discusses Arctic flora.

Has been working on orchids; they beat woodpeckers in adaptation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.219)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2838

To Charles Lyell   25 [June 1860]

Summary

Encloses arrow-heads.

Comments on gestation in dogs.

Mentions BAAS meeting at Oxford.

Etty’s illness.

Criticises views of J. W. Dawson on organic and geological change.

The problems of distinguishing varieties and species.

Discusses facts explained by his theory.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.220)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2843

To Charles Lyell   5 [July 1860]

Summary

Glad CL plans trip to Amiens to investigate flints and post-glacial period.

Mentions support by Huxley, Hooker, and Lubbock at Oxford BAAS meeting. Asa Gray also goes on fighting.

Likes article by William Hopkins ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life", Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90].

Comments on hybrids of hare and rabbit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 [July 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.221)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2860

To Charles Lyell   30 July [1860]

Summary

Comments on BAAS meeting: "our side seems to have got on very well". Asa Gray, too, is fighting nobly.

Comments on review [by Samuel Wilberforce] in the Quarterly [Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions a favourable review in the London Review.

Wonders if German translation [of the Origin] by Bronn has drawn attention to the subject.

The Natural History Review to be edited by Huxley and others.

Expects CL’s book [Antiquity of man (1863)] to be a bombshell.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  30 July [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.222)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2881

To Charles Lyell   11 August [1860]

Summary

Comments on his fear that "so many heavy guns fired by great men" might influence the public and scientists.

Sends CL the Owen-inspired Wilberforce review [Q. Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions defence of Origin by Asa Gray at American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Agassiz and Theophilus Parsons have poor criticisms ["Prof. Agassiz on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 142–54].

Lists other negative reviews by Rudolph Wagner ["An essay on classification by Louis Agassiz", Göttingische Gelehrte Anz. (1860) pt 2: 761–800], Charles Daubeny ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants, with particular reference to Mr Darwin’s work On the origin of species by natural selection", Rep. BAAS 30 (1860) pt 2: 109–10], and two anonymous ones (one favourable).

Huxley says K. E. von Baer "goes a long way with us".

Comments on "pipes" in chalk as evidence of geological processes still at work.

Is writing on origin of dog breeds [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.223)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2895

To Charles Lyell   28 August [1860]

Summary

The adultery of Lady [Harriet Spencer] Grey and Captain Keppell.

A new species of elephant discovered by Hugh Falconer.

Comments on excellent review by Asa Gray [Atlantic Monthly 6 (1860): 229–39].

Still believes dogs descended from several wild stocks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.224)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2900

To Charles Lyell   1 September [1860]

Summary

Discusses at length CL’s criticisms of natural selection.

Comments on possible former connection between the Galapagos and South America.

Discounts survival of mammals on atolls.

Discusses reptile origin of mammals.

Discounts development of a mammal on an island and the descent of mammals from a bird.

The antiquity of islands.

Comments on bats of New Zealand. Geographical distribution of seals. Discusses Amblyrhynchus.

Glad CL will read his MS on origin of dogs [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.225)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2903

To Charles Lyell   12 September [1860]

Summary

Additional response, at length, to CL’s criticisms of natural selection. Comments on failure of rodents to develop in Australia. Argues that most species become extinct and do not develop. Discusses variability, especially variability of rudimentary organs. Extinction among ammonites. Survival of Ornithorhynchus. Descent of marsupials and placentals. Emphasises embryological argument for descent of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 Sept [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.226)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2915

To Charles Lyell   23 [September 1860]

Summary

Hopes to get Asa Gray’s review of Origin republished.

Argues for single origin of mammals.

Encloses two phylogenetic diagrams indicating possible descent of mammals.

Comments on rodents, marsupials, and dingo in Australia,

and on a paper on the survival of stumps as a result of root grafting.

Argues that man had a single progenitor and consists of a single species.

Comments on destruction of non-white races.

Discusses introduction of rodents to islands by man.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  23 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.227)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2925

To Charles Lyell   26 [September 1860]

Summary

Mentions extinction on St Helena.

Madeira and Canary Island insects are found at Cape of Good Hope.

Regrets errors on dingo in his manuscript on the dog.

Discusses crosses among pigeons.

Compares development in birds and mammals.

Plans to write about other domestic animals.

Discusses races of early man.

Falconer’s discoveries of fossil elephants.

Comments on articles by Asa Gray.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  26 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.228)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2928
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