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To Charles Lyell   8 July [1856]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of [Matthew Fontaine?] Maury’s map.

Discusses possibility of submerged continental extension including Madeira, Canaries, and Azores.

Mentions icebergs as carriers of European plants.

Hooker’s work on Antarctic flora.

Comments on coolness of tropics in glacial period and consequent migrations. Hooker’s views on this.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 July [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.134)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1920

To Charles Lyell   10 November [1856]

Summary

Illnesses of Mrs Horner and Emma Darwin.

Death of Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood.

Mentions work on his "Big Book" [Natural selection].

Remarks on J. A. H. de Bosquet’s discovery of a Chthamalus in the Chalk.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.140)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1984

To Charles Lyell   11 February [1857]

Summary

Discusses a proposed expedition to Australia. Urges collecting and investigating productions of isolated islands. Recommends dredging the sea-bottom.

Mentions keeping Helix pomatia alive in sea-water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Feb [1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.145)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2050

To Charles Lyell   13 April [1857]

Summary

CD returns a letter from Wollaston.

Although opposed to the Forbesian doctrine [of continental extension] as a general rule, CD would have no objection to its being proved in some cases. Does not think Wollaston has proved it; nor can anyone until more is known about the means of distribution of insects – but the identity of the two faunas is certainly interesting.

His health is very poor and his "everlasting species-Book" quite overwhelms him with work. It is beyond his powers, but he hopes to live to finish it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  13 Apr [1857]
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen.109/702)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2077

To Charles Lyell   26 April [1858]

Summary

Comments on letter from Georg Hartung to CL dealing with erratic boulders.

Discusses migration of plants and animals.

A letter from Thomas Thomson on heat endured by temperate plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  26 Apr [1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.151)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2262

To Charles Lyell   18 [June 1858]

Summary

Encloses MS by A. R. Wallace. CD has been forestalled. " . . . if Wallace had my MS sketch written out in 1842 he could not have made a better short abstract!" Wallace does not say if he wishes CD to publish MS, but CD will offer to send it to journal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 [June 1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.152)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2285

To Charles Lyell   [25 June 1858]

Summary

Everything in Wallace’s sketch also appears in CD’s sketch of 1844. A year ago CD sent a short sketch of his views to Asa Gray. Can CD honourably publish his sketch now that Wallace has sent outline of his views? "I would far rather burn my whole book than that he or any man shd. think that I had behaved in a paltry spirit." Does not believe Wallace originated his views from anything CD wrote to him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [25 June 1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.153)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2294

To Charles Lyell   26 [June 1858]

Summary

Is it fair to take advantage of knowing that Wallace is in the field? Seems hard on CD to lose priority of many years, but does not feel this alters justice of case.

Baby [Charles Waring Darwin] has much fever. Frightened because three children in village have died from scarlet fever.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  26 [June 1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.154)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2295

To Charles Lyell   18 July [1858]

Summary

Thanks for abstract of Etna paper [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 148 (1858): 703–86]. Never expected to see Élie de Beaumont’s theory ["craters of elevation"] so completely upset. "He must have picked out favourable cases for measurement."

More than satisfied by what was done at Linnean Society [joint reading of CD’s and Wallace’s papers: "Tendency of species to form varieties", Collected papers 2: 3–19]. Intends to prepare longer abstract.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 July [1858]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.155)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2309

To Charles Lyell   28 March [1859]

Summary

Has heard that CL has spoken to John Murray about publication [of Origin]. Encloses prospective title-page. Asks whether he ought to tell John Murray about unorthodoxy of the book.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 Mar [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.163)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2437

To Charles Lyell   30 March [1859]

Summary

CD is grateful to CL for his help in arranging with Murray for publication [of Origin]. Sorry Murray objects to term "abstract" in title, but will defer to him and CL.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  30 Mar [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.164)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2439

To Charles Lyell   21 June [1859]

Summary

Discusses S. S. Haldeman’s paper ["Enumeration of the recent freshwater Mollusca", Boston J. Nat. Hist. 4 (1844): 468–84].

Centres of species origin.

Describes his corrections of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  21 June [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.165)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2470

To Charles Lyell   28 [June 1859]

Summary

Thanks CL for copy of his paper ["Structure of lavas", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 148 (1858): 703–86].

Promises him a copy of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 [June 1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.166)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2473

To Charles Lyell   2 September [1859]

Summary

CL’s research on flint tools.

Promises to send proof-sheets of Origin. Discusses his view of species.

Ill health of himself and his family.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  2 Sept [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.167)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2486

To Charles Lyell   20 September [1859]

Summary

Thanks CL for his favourable remarks to the Geological Section of the BAAS concerning the forthcoming publication of the Origin. Hopes CL will accept his view of species.

Comments on CL’s paper ["On the occurrence of works of human art in post-Pliocene deposits", Rep. BAAS 29 (1859): 93–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Sept [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.169)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2492

To Charles Lyell   25 September [1859]

Summary

Discusses text of Origin.

Compares Eocene and modern climates.

Mentions Hooker’s view of his geographical [distribution] chapters.

Asks CL’s opinion of his statements on distribution during "glacial and preceding warmer periods".

Mentions chapters on geological record and embryology.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 Sept [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.170)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2494

To Charles Lyell   30 September [1859]

Summary

Is sending off last proof-sheets of Origin.

Asks CL’s opinion of final chapter. Mentions difficulties of his argument.

Is too unwell to start for Ilkley.

Murray’s printing of 1250 copies seems too large to CD.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  30 Sept [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.171)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2496

To Charles Lyell   11 October [1859]

Summary

CL’s comments on Origin. Mentions corrections to last chapter suggested by CL.

Comments on lack of peculiar bird species on Madeira and Bermuda. Emphasises importance of American types in Galapagos.

Denies necessity of continued creation of primitive "Monads".

Denies need for new powers and any principle of improvement.

Discusses gradations of intellectual powers.

Adaptive inferiority and extinction of groups of species and genera.

Asserts that climate is less important than the struggle with other organisms.

Suggests an experiment involving primroses and cowslips.

The chapter on hybridisation.

Rudimentary organs.

Gives opinion of Lamarck’s work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.172)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2503

To Charles Lyell   20 October [1859]

Summary

Comments on CL’s letters.

Discusses foreign animals naturalised in Australia and elsewhere.

Affirms man’s capacity to survive in Eocene climate.

Comments on American types.

Denies necessity for "continued intervention of creative power".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.173)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2507

To Charles Lyell   25 October [1859]

Summary

Discusses P. S. Pallas’ theory of origin of domestic dog breeds. CD believes domestic dogs descended from more than one aboriginal wild species but ultimately "we believe all canine species have descended from one parent and the only question is whether the whole or only part of difference in our domestic breeds has arisen since man domesticated them".

Races of man offer great difficulty. The doctrine of Pallas and Agassiz that there are several species "does not help us" in the least.

Hopes Henry Holland will not review Origin.

CD’s and CL’s difference on "principle of improvement" and "power of adaptation" is profound. Improvement in breeds of cattle requires neither. Urges him to reread first four chapters of Origin carefully. Natural selection is not to be contrasted with "improvement": every step involves improvement in relation to the conditions of life. There is no need for a "principle" to intervene.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.174)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2510
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