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To Veitch & Sons   [before 11 August 1877]

Summary

Asks specific questions on looking after plants of Dionaea. [The correspondent’s replies to the questions are written beneath them.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Veitch & Sons
Date:  [before 11 Aug 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 202: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10749

From W. E. Darwin   [24 August 1877]

Summary

Action of heavy rain on the leaves of Robinia.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 Aug 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 162: 85
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10753

To W. E. Darwin   20 [August 1877]

Summary

Asks WED to make some observations on Acacia or Robinia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  20 [Aug 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 139
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10755

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   [before 24 August 1877]

Summary

Would like specimen of Cassia mimosoides.

Offers books to R. I. Lynch in return for services rendered.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  [before 24 Aug 1877]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: ff. 83–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11085

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   [20–4 August 1877]

Summary

Discusses plants sent for experiments and "bloom" on leaves of Trifolium.

Sends enclosure for R. I. Lynch.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  [20–4 Aug 1877]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: ff. 87–8) (Image reproduced with the kind permission of the Board of Trustees)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11086

To Friedrich Ludwig   1 August 1877

Summary

Much obliged for account of cleistogamic flowers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Friedrich Ludwig
Date:  1 Aug 1877
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11087

To W. D. Whitney   1 August [1877]

Summary

Sends thanks for a newspaper abstract; will be pleased to see the paper [probably "Economy as a phonetic force", Trans. Am. Philological Assoc.8 (1877): 123–34] when printed.

Sends his own ["Biographical sketch of an infant"], saying it is of little value, the observations having been made before recent advances in philology.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Dwight Whitney
Date:  1 Aug [1877]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11088

From D. Appleton & Co.   [1 August – 15 September 1877]

Summary

Statement of U. S. sales of CD’s works.

Author:  D. Appleton & Co
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 Aug–15 Sept 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 159: A100
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11089

From A. H. Sayce   2 August 1877

Summary

Thanks CD for permission to quote his comments; mentions some of his conclusions with regard to the early speech of children.

Thanks for [newspaper] account of American Philological Association meeting.

Author:  Archibald Henry Sayce
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 177: 47
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11090

From Theodor von Heldreich   2 August 1877

Summary

Sends paper on Greek plants.

Author:  Theodor Heinrich Hermann (Theodor) von Heldreich
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 166: 135
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11091

To Alphonse de Candolle   3 August 1877

Summary

Will be interested in reading AdeC’s paper on Smilax. The transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual condition is a perplexing problem.

CD agrees that there is much justice in AdeC’s criticism of his use of the terms "object", "end", and "purpose" but thinks "those who believe that organs have been gradually modified by natural selection for a special purpose, may I think use the above terms correctly though no conscious being has intervened".

CD and Francis are hard at work on the function of "bloom" but CD doubts that the experiments will tell them much.

Does AdeC have a decided opinion on whether plants with glaucous leaves are more frequent in hot or dry than in cold or wet countries?

Francis has been getting "striking" results from feeding meat to Drosera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  3 Aug 1877
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11092

From F. J. Cohn   5 August 1877

Summary

Praises unbroken series of CD’s and Francis [Darwin]’s botanical works.

Confirms FD’s Dipsacus observations. Problem of interpreting microscopic filaments as protoplasm or as inorganic and osmotic artifacts.

Author:  Ferdinand Julius Cohn
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 161: 203
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11093

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   7 August 1877

Summary

Requests plants that show movement, and any with "bloom" living near the sea.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  7 Aug 1877
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Darwin: Letters to Thiselton-Dyer, 1873–81: ff. 80–1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11094

To F. J. Cohn   8 August 1877

Summary

Asks permission to publish comments by FJC regarding paper by Francis Darwin [see 11073].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ferdinand Julius Cohn
Date:  8 Aug 1877
Classmark:  Michael Silverman (dealer) (2003); DAR 143: 267
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11095

To Ludwig Noiré   8 August 1877

Summary

CD sends his thanks for LN’s book [Der Ursprung der Sprache] and for the obliging words on the title page.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ludwig Noiré
Date:  8 Aug 1877
Classmark:  Stadtbibliothek Mainz (4 MS 170)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11095F

To G. J. Romanes   9 August [1877]

Summary

Comments on GJR’s papers in Nature [see 11103].

Mentions manuscript by Miss Lawless on fertilisation in plants.

Discusses work of Francis Darwin on Dipsacus

and his own experiments on Drosera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  9 Aug [1877]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.518)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11096

To James Croll   9 August 1877

Summary

Comments on JC’s paper ["On the tidal retardation argument for the age of the earth", Rep. BAAS (1876): 88–9].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Croll
Date:  9 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 143: 356
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11097

To Theodor von Heldreich   9 August 1877

Summary

Obliged for essay on plants of Greece.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Theodor Heinrich Hermann (Theodor) von Heldreich
Date:  9 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 145: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11098

To G. J. Romanes   10 August [1877]

Summary

Comments on GJR’s paper in Nature.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  10 Aug [1877]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.519)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11099

From W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   10 August 1877

Summary

Information on plants requested by CD.

Author:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Aug 1877
Classmark:  DAR 178: 100
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11100
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Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gray. Re: Design toured Britain and America in 2007–8, shedding light on how Darwin developed …
  • … his Wedgwood nieces, Lucy ( [before 25 September 1866] ; 8 June [1867-72?] ) and Sophy ( 8
  • … a draft chapter of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences …
  • … one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • … much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read …
  • … that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: …
  • … as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also …
  • … he will not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the tenor of his …
  • … are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that …
  • … felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] Lydia Becker sends Darwin a …
  • … Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedg wood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his …
  • … . Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her …
  • … . Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … he remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … my Book as perfect as ever I can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • … de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms …
  • … by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. read 1 st …
  • … Lacordaire Introduction Entomologique [Lacordaire 1834–8]: Reptiles [Duméril and Bibron 1834–54]: …
  • … Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris  good …
  • … 1838] Walter Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. …
  • … on Geology of France [Dufrénoy and Élie de Beaumont 1830–8] & C Prevost on l’Ile Julie [Prévost …
  • … 1839 Jan 10 All life of W. Scott [Lockhart 1837–8] except 5 th  vol. 19 Mungo …
  • … hermaphroditism—good letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the …
  • … Works & several reviews [Carlyle 1838–9] Nov 8 th  Murchison Silurian System [Murchison …
  • … of the Bath and West of   England Society ]. 1 st  to 8 th  vol. inclusive 1 st . series …
  • …  Pallas Travels [Pallas 1802–3] (wretched) ——8 th  Brand’s dissert. [Linnaeus 1781c] …
  • … E. Ferrier] 1824 and 1818].— 18 th . 7 th  & 8 th . Vol of Hume’s England [Hume …
  • … Botanica [Linnaeus 1751] (references at end) June 8 th . Evelyn’s Sylva [Evelyn 1664]. …
  • … 1825] & Liebers remains of Niebuhr [Lieber 1835]. 8 Paley’s Evidence. of Christ. [Paley …
  • … Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement ] Vol 7 th . & 8 th . vol. April 8 th …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Darwin’s earthquakes

Summary

Darwin experienced his first earthquake in 1834, but it was a few months later that he was really confronted with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, were confronted with a series of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … having happened Darwin to his sister Catherine, 8 November 1834 Darwin …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … what you have seen,’ he told Hooker in his letter of 8 [June 1858] , ‘yet I have been forced to …
  • … hurry in world about my M.S.’ In his letter to Hooker of 8 June [1858] , he indicates that this …
  • … the story was not deleted (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letters to Asa Gray, 28 January [1860] …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … lines were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … greenhouse for experiments (see  Correspondence  vols. 8–10). Though his greenhouse was probably …
  • … ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). Having indulged …
  • … plants drawn up by Darwin; these lists are in DAR 255: 8 and DAR 255: 2–5. The first is a list that …
  • … Get Edwardsia tetraptera mentioned by Treviranus  Honey. 8 Acropera …
  • …   ——  pictus  . 13 8  s     …
  • … chæmæcistus 20 Provenance:  DAR 255: 8 Notes 1.  Hugh Low & …
  • … 7.  Melastoma trinerve or M. trinervium. 8.  This sentence added in pencil. The reference is …
  • … 5 s .’ deleted in ink. 13.  ‘—— pictus 8  s .’ deleted in ink. 14.  ‘Drosera’ …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwin’s excitement …
  • … very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless, Hooker solicited …
  • … latest ‘outburst of bigotry’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 8 November [1864] ). Although …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 3 hits

  • … exhausting. And I am actually forced always to go to bed at 8 o’clock completely tired. …
  • … attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My dear [Dr Gray] …
  • … 7  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 11 JANUARY 1844 8  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 25 APRIL 1855 …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … deliberating how to end the matter to his satisfaction. On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will …
  • … between Whitney and Max Müller. In Descent 2d ed., pp. 86–8, Darwin had cited Whitney’s …
  • … of having made false statements,’ Darwin replied on 8 April . ‘This is conduct which a man does …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … extinct species such as the mammoth ( Correspondence vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 4 May [1860 …
  • … what he thought about ‘the derivation of Species’. 8 Darwin continued to feel aggrieved about …
  • … theory of transmutation, see Bartholomew 1973. 8. See Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … Letters from Charles Lyell to T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, and 8 June 1865 (Imperial College, Huxley …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Honeycombs are natural engineering marvels, using the least possible amount of wax to provide the greatest amount of storage space, with the greatest possible structural stability. Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and buying a swarm (letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 8 [June 1858] ). (Articial wax is probably …
  • … might have a simple explanation. (Letter to Richard Hill, 8 August [1859] .) Much later, Jeffries …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … W. D. Fox, [6–27 September 1863], 29 September [1863], and 8 December [1863]). Emma sent a copy to …
  • … pamphlet', and letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]). There is no …
  • … 7 September 1863, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863], and Animal World , 1 …
  • …   or to Mrs C. Darwin | Downbar Bromley | Kent. 8 Christ’s College Library, …
  • … however, see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]. Only two resident gamekeepers …
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