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To E. A. Darwin   7 September [1871]

Summary

Wants to sell some shares held in trust by EAD and Josiah Wedgwood [III].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Date:  7 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 27
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13789

To ?   27 September [1871–81]

Summary

Thanks for a book. "I am so much overworked at present that I cannot read it now, & I am a very poor German scholar".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  27 Sept [1871-81]
Classmark:  David Schulson (dealer) (August 2005)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13886

From Emma Darwin to V. L. Isitt   [before 17 September 1871]

Summary

Feels it unlikely that CD could employ a secretary but he is prepared to experiment if Miss I. would care to come to Down for a period.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  Virginia Lavinia Isitt
Date:  [before 17 Sept 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7410

DCP-LETT-7920

Author:  Margaret Emily Gaskell
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  [Sept 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7920

To George Busk   2 September [1871]

Summary

Is preparing a new edition of Origin [6th ed. (1872)] and asks GB for information on the gradations between the vibracula and avicularia of the Polyzoa and on what he bases his opinion concerning the homology of the avicularium with the zooid.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Busk
Date:  2 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 88
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7921

To H. E. Litchfield   4 September [1871]

Summary

An affectionate letter to HL on her honeymoon. Urges her to keep her mother as an example.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  4 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 58373)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7922

From F. A. Hanbury   4 September 1871

Summary

Thanks for £5 for the Voysey fund.

Author:  Francis Alfred Hanbury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 166: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7923

To F. E. Abbot   6 September [1871]

Summary

CD’s views [on religion] are far from clear. He cannot make up his mind how far an inward conviction that there must be some Creator or First Cause is really trustworthy evidence. Does not feel he has thought deeply enough to express himself publicly on religion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Ellingwood Abbot
Date:  6 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  Harvard University Archives (Papers of F. E. Abbot, 1841–1904. Named Correspondence, 1857–1903. Folder: Darwin, Charles and W. E. Darwin (son), 1871–1883, box 44. HUG 1101)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7924

From Anton Dohrn   7 September 1871

Summary

Reports on the international support he has obtained for the zoological station [see 7038]. Asks CD whether he will serve on a board of naturalists who would receive an annual report on the station.

Huxley is now convinced by AD’s views on homologies of the nervous system of arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. Kovalevsky takes the same line but does not go far enough.

Author:  Felix Anton (Anton) Dohrn
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 162: 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7925

To Anton Dohrn   8 September 1871

Summary

Agrees to have his name on the list of naturalists to whom annual report [on zoological station] should be sent.

His health has been very bad for last six weeks.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Felix Anton (Anton) Dohrn
Date:  8 Sept 1871
Classmark:  Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München (Ana 525. Ba 698)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7926

To Otto Kratz   8 September [1871]

Summary

Thanks for sending the photographs of hairy people at the Burmese court.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Otto Kratz
Date:  8 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  Christie’s (dealers) (2005)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7926F

From Wallis Nash   9 September 1871

Summary

In hunting dogs behavioural and physical traits are often inherited together and from either male or female parent.

Author:  Wallis Nash
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 172: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7928

From H. Ramu   9 September 1871

Summary

Informs CD that there are goats at Nancy with maxillary appendages similar to those of the ancient Irish pig [see Variation 1: 75].

Author:  H Ramu
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 176: 20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7929

From H. E. Litchfield   9 September [1871]

Summary

CD’s letter [7922] was very sweet to her, and if her marriage [to Richard B. Litchfield] can be half as perfect as CD’s she will be very happy.

Richard’s German fails in communicating with washerwomen.

Author:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  Estate of Richard Darwin Keynes (CUL DAR 245: 525)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7929A

From George Busk   10 September 1871

Summary

Replies to CD’s queries about the homologies of the avicularian and vibracular organs of Polyzoa and gives examples of gradations between the two.

Author:  George Busk
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 160: 383
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7930

From E. A. Darwin   10 September [1871]

Summary

Writes to check on stock certificates received.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B76–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7931

To Alexander Agassiz   10 September [1871 or 1873]

Summary

Discusses exchange of books.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Agassiz
Date:  10 Sept [1871 or 1873]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7932

To Osbert Salvin   10 September [1871]

Summary

CD is interested in the gradation of character in the lamellae of the beaks of ducks. He finds that they are less developed or prominent in the common duck and goose than in true ducks. Is OS able to provide him with any information on this subject?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Osbert Salvin
Date:  10 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  Sybil Rampen (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7932A

To Chauncey Wright   12 September 1871

Summary

CW’s pamphlet [Darwinism (1871)] nearly ready. Friends have been much struck by it but say several passages rather obscure.

Glad CW coming to England. Will be delighted to see him at Down.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Chauncey Wright
Date:  12 Sept 1871
Classmark:  DAR 148: 384
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7933

To Wallis Nash   12 September [1871]

Summary

Thanks for facts relating to inheritance.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Wallis Nash
Date:  12 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  F. Louise Nash Barton (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7934
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Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … that it was ‘dry as dust’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 9 September 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied …
  • … which is crowned with glory’ ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 9 February 1879 ). The botanist and …
  • … ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s suggestion, but warned him on 9 June not to ‘expend much powder & …
  • … (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219.9: 201)). Celebrity and honours …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Darwin asked Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallas’ delay … is …
  • … on the auditory organs of Orthoptera and Coleoptera on 9 September . Darwin annotated a letter …
  • … from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing sphinx moths that …
  • … direct result of natural selection ( Variation  2: 185–9). Wallace seized upon this point in a …
  • … Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwin’s eldest son, …
  • … from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868 , 17 June 1868 , 9 September 1868 , and 31 October 1868 …
  • … A different order of pride was expressed on 9 November by Ernst Haeckel on the birth of his son …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … excited Darwin, who exclaimed to Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] ), ‘I am almost stark …
  • … , whether the Book will sell’ ( letter to John Murray, 9 [February 1862] ). To his son, William, …
  • … better fun’ than species ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1862] ), he responded to the …
  • … active young wolves’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 9 October 1862 ). Darwin had managed to …
  • … to read any paper or speak’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 [April 1862] ). A visit in October from …
  • … me go away for an hour after dinner & retire to my room at 9 o clock I do not think it would …
  • … as true as gospel, so it must be true’ ( to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1862] ). the real …

Books on the Beagle

Summary

The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the  Narrative  (2: 18). CD, in his letter to Henslow, 9 [September 1831] , discussing the …
  • … Desaulses de.  Voyage autour du monde . . . 1817–20.  9 vols., 4 vols. plates, Paris, 1824–44. …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … into an entirely new province of knowledge’ ( 9 December 1859 ). He soon became interested in …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] Darwin’s nephew, …
  • … 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin’s …
  • … Letter 7433  - Wedgwood,  F. to Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwin’s brother-in-law, …
  • … Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin thanks his son …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … field guide to Glen Roy: To Charles Lyell, 9 August [1838] To Charles Lyell, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … by his perfectibility principle (Nägeli 1865, pp. 28–9). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … I do not care to follow him’ ( letter from T. H. Farrer, 9 October 1869 ). Farrer ventured to …
  • … on summit of a mountain.—’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 9 July [1869] ).  Earlier in the year, …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Beagle voyage, to a letter to C. A. Kennard written on 9 January 1882 , only shortly before …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … book shows that they spent 14s on a backgammon board on 9 November 1868, a few days after leaving …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … my teeth at my own folly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] ). After his venture into the …
  • … … who dare speak out’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] ). The others listed were himself, …
  • … to Asa Gray, 20 April [1863] , letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] , and memorandum from G. H …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … ‘is the bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching …
  • … demons and spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Cactus’, he wrote to William Turner Thiselton-Dyer on 9 May. He later noted that in many Cacteae the …
  • … about the radicles’, he wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 9 May . ‘The apex is sensitive, & instead …
  • … ‘I am what may be called a rich man’, he replied on 9 December, ‘on the other hand I have 5 sons …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Lyell telling him about the letter to the Athenæum . 9  In the same letter, Darwin …
  • … about C. Lyell 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … 11, letter from J. D. Hooker, [24 March 1863] and n. 9. In his published review, Lubbock wrote …
  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Emma Darwin, [1 June 1865] (DAR 219.9: 28). 24. See the …

Photograph album of German and Austrian scientists

Summary

The album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade, and contained 165 portraits of German and Austrian scientists. The work was lavishly produced and bound in blue velvet with metal embossing. Its ornate…

Matches: 0 hits

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 3 hits

  • … to be killed after painful experiments. “ 9. —Unlicensed persons making painful …
  • … liable to penalties of Cruelty to Animals Act. 9.—Any person not holding a licence under …
  • … and restrictions contained in sections numbered 8, 9, 10, 11, of the said act. (Signed) …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … (read) Smellie Philosophy of Zoology [Smellie 1790–9]. Fleming Ditto [Fleming 1822] …
  • … Read Aristotle to see whether any of my views are ancient 9 Study with profound care …
  • … read Audubons Ornithol: Biography [Audubon 1831–9]— 4 Vols. well worth reading [DAR …
  • … de leurs genres, par M. Latreille, 1 vol. 8vo. 9 s . [Latreille 1825] Mémoire sur la …
  • … [Fabricius 1603]. referred to by Hallam [Hallam 1837–9] D r . Lord has written some new …
  • … 1842] Coleridge. Literary Remains [Coleridge 1836–9] Inconsistency of Human wishes. …
  • … and cheaper Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read …
  • … Duke of Wellington’s Dispatches [Wellesley 1834–9] Carlyles Oliver Cromwell [Carlyle 1845] …
  • … Knight’s facts on dogs instincts Veterinary. vol: 9. p. 229. “A comparative view of the form …
  • … 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. 9. Columbidæ (Pigeons.) [Selby 1835] 11. …
  • … vol. Ludlows Memoirs [Ludlow 1698–9] Memoirs of Plumer Ward by Hon …
  • … to the Study of Insects 1868. U. States [Packard 1868–9] (an excellent large Book) [DAR …
  • … of W. S. Landors Imaginary Conversations [Landor 1824–9]— very poor Sir J 57  Browne’s …
  • … 1831] 4 vols 25 Phillips Geology [J. Phillips 1837–9] Lardners 2 nd  vol March 16 …
  • … Miscellaneous Works & several reviews [Carlyle 1838–9] Nov 8 th  Murchison Silurian …
  • … Decemb. Several more of Carlyles Essays [Carlyle 1838–9]— —— Skimmed Ordinaire on Volcanos …
  • … are some few references at end of Hallam [Hallam 1837–9]) Feb. 12 th  Charlsworths Journal …
  • … 4 th . Hallam’s Hist. Lit. 4 vols. [Hallam 1837–9]— good 15 th  Failed in reading Dryden …
  • … Shelley says is victorious & decisive 72 Octob. 9 th  Lindley’s Theory of Hort. …
  • … of Botany ]. 2. vols. 1801 to 1806. extracted. 9 th  Müllers Physiology [Müller 1837–42] 2 …
  • … 24 th . Smellie’s Philos. of Nat. Hist. [Smellie 1790–9] (one vol) d[itt]o— May 20 th . …

Darwin & coral reefs

Summary

The central idea of Darwin's theory of coral reef formation, as it was later formulated, was that the islands were formed by the upward growth of coral as the Pacific Ocean floor gradually subsided. It overturned previous ideas and would in itself…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … he arrived at his coral reef theory. Autobiography , pp. 98-9 No statement of Darwin' …
  • … the channels and lagoons of the islands ( Narrative  2: 38-9), so it may be presumed that he was …
  • … wants to be sure they will visit the South Sea Islands:  [9 September 1831] . The first …
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