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To A. R. Wallace   1 August [1871]

Summary

On a "remarkable" letter from Fritz Müller [see 7820] about mimicry, protection, and sexual selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  1 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7889

From Chauncey Wright   1 August 1871

Summary

Discusses revising his North American Review article [see 7829] for publication as a pamphlet in England.

Plans to publish a further article on phyllotaxy.

Author:  Chauncey Wright
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 181: 165
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7890

From L. H. Morgan   1 August 1871

Summary

John Lubbock’s paper [? "Remarks on stone implements from western Africa", Rep. BAAS 40 (1870): 154–5] opposes some of his best sustained conclusions.

Author:  Lewis Henry Morgan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 171: 240
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7891

From L. H. Morgan   [1 August 1871]

Summary

Sends abstract of a paper on hybridity read by Edward Moore to a natural history club in Rochester, NY. Argues the necessity of hybridity on CD’s theory.

Author:  Lewis Henry Morgan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 Aug 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 171: 240/1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7891F

To Fritz Müller   2 August [1871]

Summary

Opinions on Descent.

Sexual selection and mimicry in Lepidoptera; sexual selection as an aid to protective imitation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  2 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 34)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7892

To Theodor Piderit   2 August [1871]

Summary

Comments on TP’s work on mimicry.

Thanks for book he is sending [Wissenschaftliches System der Mimik und Physiognomik (1867)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Theodor Piderit
Date:  2 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abteilung Ostwestfalen-Lippe (D 72 Piderit, Theodor Nr. 8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7893

To Elliott & Fry   [2 August 1871]

Summary

Thanks for the photographs, which are "very good".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elliott & Fry
Date:  [2 Aug 1871]
Classmark:  Dr Gene Kritsky (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7893A

From Asa Gray   3 August 1871

Summary

AG hopes to meet CD’s sons, who are visiting America.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 165: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7894

To A. R. Wallace   4 August [1871]

Summary

Sends enclosure for ARW to read.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  4 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  UCL Library Services, Special Collections (GALTON/1/1/3/5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7895

From J. D. Hooker   5 August 1871

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Summary

Lengthy discussion of William Thomson’s address [BAAS, Edinburgh 1871].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 103: 73–77
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7896

From C. A. Canfield   5 August 1871

Summary

Sends a series of factual corrections to Variation and Descent: barking of coyotes and colour of wild American horses.

Author:  Colbert Austin Canfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 161: 39
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7897

To J. D. Hooker   6 August [1871]

Summary

Has read Thomson’s address with "greatest interest", but JDH has said exactly what he [CD] thinks of it.

Herschel’s was a good sneer. It made him add the Raphael Madonna simile in Descent [2: 142].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 94: 202–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7898

From A. R. Wallace   7 August 1871

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Summary

Sends notes on Fritz Müller’s letter.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 89: 85–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7899

To W. W. Baxter   8 August [1871]

Summary

Asks WWB to send 8 grains of acetate of strychnine by post.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Walmisley Baxter
Date:  8 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  Wellcome Collection (MS.7781/1–32 item 26)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7900

From Michele Lessona   5 August 1871

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Summary

On the malar bone [see Descent 1: 124].

Has verified hermaphroditism of Serranus and other fishes as normal [see Descent 1: 208].

Author:  Michele Lessona
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 87: 193
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7901

To Friedrich Hildebrand   10 August [1871]

Summary

Mentions experiments on Lythrum.

Thanks for list of seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Friedrich Hermann Gustav (Friedrich) Hildebrand
Date:  10 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  Klaus Groove (private collection); sold by Venator and Hanstein, Cologne (dealers), 16 March 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7902

From T. H. Farrer   11 August 1871

Summary

Sorry he will be away when CD comes down.

Congratulations on Henrietta Darwin’s engagement.

Author:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st Baron Farrer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 164: 71
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7903

To John Lubbock   12 August [1871]

Summary

CD’s comments on proofs of JL’s book [Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura (1873)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  12 Aug [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 67 (EH 88206511)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7904

From W. E. Darwin   15 August 1871

Summary

Sends on letter from Hacon about Captain Litchfield’s will.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Aug 1871
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 45)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7904F

From J. D. Hooker   15 August 1871

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Summary

Differences in violet and honeysuckle cases.

Huxley basted Thomson awfully in Section D [of BAAS].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Aug 1871
Classmark:  DAR 103: 78–79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7905
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Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gray. Re: Design toured Britain and America in 2007–8, shedding light on how Darwin developed …
  • … his Wedgwood nieces, Lucy ( [before 25 September 1866] ; 8 June [1867-72?] ) and Sophy ( 8
  • … a draft chapter of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences …
  • … one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • … much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read …
  • … that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: …
  • … as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also …
  • … he will not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the tenor of his …
  • … are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that …
  • … felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] Lydia Becker sends Darwin a …
  • … Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedg wood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his …
  • … . Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her …
  • … . Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … he remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … my Book as perfect as ever I can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • … de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms …
  • … by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. read 1 st …
  • … Lacordaire Introduction Entomologique [Lacordaire 1834–8]: Reptiles [Duméril and Bibron 1834–54]: …
  • … Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris  good …
  • … 1838] Walter Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. …
  • … on Geology of France [Dufrénoy and Élie de Beaumont 1830–8] & C Prevost on l’Ile Julie [Prévost …
  • … 1839 Jan 10 All life of W. Scott [Lockhart 1837–8] except 5 th  vol. 19 Mungo …
  • … hermaphroditism—good letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the …
  • … Works & several reviews [Carlyle 1838–9] Nov 8 th  Murchison Silurian System [Murchison …
  • … of the Bath and West of   England Society ]. 1 st  to 8 th  vol. inclusive 1 st . series …
  • …  Pallas Travels [Pallas 1802–3] (wretched) ——8 th  Brand’s dissert. [Linnaeus 1781c] …
  • … E. Ferrier] 1824 and 1818].— 18 th . 7 th  & 8 th . Vol of Hume’s England [Hume …
  • … Botanica [Linnaeus 1751] (references at end) June 8 th . Evelyn’s Sylva [Evelyn 1664]. …
  • … 1825] & Liebers remains of Niebuhr [Lieber 1835]. 8 Paley’s Evidence. of Christ. [Paley …
  • … Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement ] Vol 7 th . & 8 th . vol. April 8 th …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Darwin’s earthquakes

Summary

Darwin experienced his first earthquake in 1834, but it was a few months later that he was really confronted with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, were confronted with a series of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … having happened Darwin to his sister Catherine, 8 November 1834 Darwin …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … what you have seen,’ he told Hooker in his letter of 8 [June 1858] , ‘yet I have been forced to …
  • … hurry in world about my M.S.’ In his letter to Hooker of 8 June [1858] , he indicates that this …
  • … the story was not deleted (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letters to Asa Gray, 28 January [1860] …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … lines were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … greenhouse for experiments (see  Correspondence  vols. 8–10). Though his greenhouse was probably …
  • … ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). Having indulged …
  • … plants drawn up by Darwin; these lists are in DAR 255: 8 and DAR 255: 2–5. The first is a list that …
  • … Get Edwardsia tetraptera mentioned by Treviranus  Honey. 8 Acropera …
  • …   ——  pictus  . 13 8  s     …
  • … chæmæcistus 20 Provenance:  DAR 255: 8 Notes 1.  Hugh Low & …
  • … 7.  Melastoma trinerve or M. trinervium. 8.  This sentence added in pencil. The reference is …
  • … 5 s .’ deleted in ink. 13.  ‘—— pictus 8  s .’ deleted in ink. 14.  ‘Drosera’ …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwin’s excitement …
  • … very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless, Hooker solicited …
  • … latest ‘outburst of bigotry’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 8 November [1864] ). Although …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 3 hits

  • … exhausting. And I am actually forced always to go to bed at 8 o’clock completely tired. …
  • … attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My dear [Dr Gray] …
  • … 7  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 11 JANUARY 1844 8  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 25 APRIL 1855 …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … deliberating how to end the matter to his satisfaction. On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will …
  • … between Whitney and Max Müller. In Descent 2d ed., pp. 86–8, Darwin had cited Whitney’s …
  • … of having made false statements,’ Darwin replied on 8 April . ‘This is conduct which a man does …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … extinct species such as the mammoth ( Correspondence vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 4 May [1860 …
  • … what he thought about ‘the derivation of Species’. 8 Darwin continued to feel aggrieved about …
  • … theory of transmutation, see Bartholomew 1973. 8. See Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … Letters from Charles Lyell to T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, and 8 June 1865 (Imperial College, Huxley …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Honeycombs are natural engineering marvels, using the least possible amount of wax to provide the greatest amount of storage space, with the greatest possible structural stability. Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and buying a swarm (letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 8 [June 1858] ). (Articial wax is probably …
  • … might have a simple explanation. (Letter to Richard Hill, 8 August [1859] .) Much later, Jeffries …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … W. D. Fox, [6–27 September 1863], 29 September [1863], and 8 December [1863]). Emma sent a copy to …
  • … pamphlet', and letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]). There is no …
  • … 7 September 1863, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863], and Animal World , 1 …
  • …   or to Mrs C. Darwin | Downbar Bromley | Kent. 8 Christ’s College Library, …
  • … however, see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]. Only two resident gamekeepers …
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