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Darwin Correspondence Project

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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Frances Mosley Wedgwood   5 March [1860 or later]

Summary

Thanks for a shell of an edible mollusc and also specimens of blind cave animals, which he will present in FW’s name to the British Museum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frances Mosley (Fanny Frank) Wedgwood
Date:  
Classmark:  Alan Wedgwood (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11310F

To ?   19 March [1860–1?]

Summary

Recommends papers on Styrian Cave insects and American cave animals.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  19 Mar [1860–1]
Classmark:  King’s College London Archives (TH/PP MISC)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13770G

To William Erasmus Darwin   [4 March 1860]

Summary

Discusses the direction of WED’s studies.

Tells of the response to the Origin and the impact that it has made in England and abroad.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [4 Mar 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 55
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2675

To Asa Gray   2 March [1860]

Summary

Has been ill with pleurisy.

Sends more corrections and additions for American edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (24)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2718

To J. D. Hooker   3 March [1860]

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Summary

CD’s list of fifteen converts. His opinions on opponents and supporters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 45
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2719

To T. H. Huxley   4 March [1860]

Summary

Gardeners’ Chronicle has reprinted THH’s Times review.

W. H. Harvey made weak attack on Origin [Gard. Chron. (1860): 145–6], to which Hooker made admirable rejoinder [Gard. Chron. (1860): 170–1].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  4 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 109)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2720

To a Bookseller   4 March [1860]

Summary

Orders J. B. Jukes’s Student’s manual of geology [1857] and Macmillan’s Magazine (Dec 1859).

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Bookseller.
Date:  4 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  The Morgan Library and Museum, New York (MA 1492)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2721

To James Lamont   5 March [1860]

Summary

Responds to JL’s comments on effect of natural selection on grouse or reindeer.

Asks if dirt adheres to feet of water-birds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Lamont
Date:  5 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146: 28
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2722

To Williams and Norgate?   6 March [1860]

Summary

Orders first part of vol. 3 of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Histoire naturelle générale des règnes organiques [3 vols. (1854–62)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  6 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  John Hay Library, Brown University (Albert E. Lownes Manuscript Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2723

To Samuel Pickworth Woodward   6 March [1860]

Summary

Will be glad to have SPW’s criticisms of Origin.

Discusses his use of terms, "typical" and "specialisation".

Emphasises large body of facts explained by his theory of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  6 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 148: 379
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2724

To Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther   6 March [1860]

Summary

Reports on the snakes he collected in the Galapagos.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf (Albert) Günther
Date:  6 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Shrewsbury School, Taylor Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2725

To Asa Gray   8 March [1860]

Summary

Further additions and corrections for American Origin.

Views of Owen, G. H. K. Thwaites, and W. H. Harvey on CD’s theories.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  8 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (31)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2726

From Frederick Wollaston Hutton   8 March 1860

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Summary

Reports catching a landrail on board ship.

Encloses drawings of insects caught at sea.

Author:  Frederick Wollaston Hutton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Mar 1860
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 241
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2727

To J. D. Hooker   12 March [1860]

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Summary

Lyell and CD would urge JDH to make his essays into a book, but see he has embarked on a huge project with G. Bentham [Genera plantarum, 3 vols. (1862–83)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 46
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2728

To Joseph Prestwich   12 March [1860]

Summary

Asks if JP can send criticism of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Prestwich
Date:  12 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 147
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2729

To J. D. Hooker   18 [March 1860]

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Summary

JDH coming to Down. Huxley will be invited.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 [Mar 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 47
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2730

To G. H. K. Thwaites   21 March [1860]

Summary

Is pleased GHKT goes a little way with him.

Has rectified in foreign editions of Origin his omission of an explanation of the failure of many forms to progress;

also has discussion of beauty in MS. Does GHKT really believe Diatomaceae, for instance, were created beautiful so that man, millions of generations later, should admire them through a microscope? CD attributes most of these structures to unknown laws of growth; useful structures are accounted for by natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henry Kendrick Thwaites
Date:  21 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  Smithsonian Libraries (Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology MSS 405 A. Gift of the Burndy Library)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2731

To H. G. Bronn   21 March [1860]

Summary

Thanks HGB [for his Morphologische Studien (1858)].

Pleased at quickness of translation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Heinrich Georg Bronn
Date:  21 Mar [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2732

To W. R. Greg   21 March [1860?]

Summary

Is glad to read Greg’s remarks on Origin. Discusses MS Greg has sent for review on proportion of sexes at birth.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Rathbone Greg
Date:  21 Mar [1860?]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s, New York (December 1996)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2732F

To William Darwin Fox   22 [March 1860]

Summary

Only proof that internal organs and bones were intermediate would convince CD of the possibility of the astounding [deer] hybrid WDF has reported.

Has WDF positive knowledge that common ganders do not always turn white?

Has begun his larger books. New editions of Origin will appear.

What is right and wrong in it will soon be sifted.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  22 [Mar 1860]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 127)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2733
Document type
letter (27)
Date
1860
03
02 (1)
03 (1)
04 (3)
05 (3)
06 (3)
08 (2)
12 (3)
18 (1)
19 (1)
20 (1)
21 (3)
22 (1)
24 (1)
27 (1)
29 (1)
30 (1)
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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … (1) Abney, W. de W. (3) Accademia dei Lincei …
  • … (1) Ainslie, O. A. (3) Airy, Hubert …
  • … (4) Alberts, Maurice (3) Albrecht, R. F. …
  • … (1) Ambrose, J. L. (3) American Academy of …
  • … (1) Anderson, James (c) (3) Anderson-Henry, …
  • … (1) Badger, E. W. (3) Baer, K. E. von …
  • … (1) Balch, C. L. (3) Baldwin, J. D. …
  • … (5) Ball, Robert (3) Ball, Valentine …
  • … (1) Beal, W. J. (3) Beale, L. S. (2) …
  • … (1) Beddoe, John (3) Beger, Karl (2) …
  • … (66) Bergson, Edouard (3) Bergstedt, C. F. …
  • … (4) Blake, C. C. (3) Blanche (2) …
  • … (1) Blewitt, Octavian (3) Blomefield, Leonard …
  • … (5) Boole, M. E. (3) Boott, Francis …
  • … (1) Bornet, Édouard (3) Bosquet, J. A. H. de …
  • … (1) Bouton, Louis (3) Bowerbank, J. S. …
  • … (1) Bridgman, W. K. (3) Brigg, John …
  • … (1) Brown-Séquard, C. É. (3) Browne, H. G. C. …
  • … (2) Burgess, Thomas (3) Burn, Robert …
  • … (1) Bush, John (3) Busk, George (18) …
  • … (2) Butler, Mary (3) Butler, Samuel (b) …
  • … (1) Campbell, G. D. (3) Canby, W. M. …
  • … (9) Cattell, John (3) Cecil, Henry …
  • … (7) Chance, Frank (3) Chancellor of the …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … at all concern his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwin’s …
  • … been ‘ utterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A chronological list of all …
  • … and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like François Jules …
  • … I gaze at it, makes me sick!’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, …
  • … is best thing for subject.—’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). Further details of the …

Teaching Evolution at Key Stage 3? Join our December workshop

Summary

This free, exciting training and consultation event takes place on Tuesday 12th December at Cambridge University Library, 9.00-4.30. The workshop aims to support KS3 science teachers in delivering informed, dynamic Darwin-based sessions.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … This exciting training and consultation event takes place on Tuesday 12th December at Cambridge …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … of a ‘short essay’ on man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But this work would eventually …
  • … pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such worries were …
  • … kind almost heroic, in you to sacrifice your hair and pay 3 d  in the cause of science …
  • … canary (letters from J. J. Weir, [26] March 1868 and 3 June 1868 ). ‘It was very kind’, …
  • … on 9 September . Darwin annotated a letter sent on 3 April by Henry Doubleday that contained a …
  • … you have communicated to me’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 3 June 1868 ). it is a fatal …
  • … of species through the study of monstrosities, remarked on 3 April , ‘your works are destined to …
  • … admirer of your genius’, wrote Frederick Behrens on 3 December , ‘I presume you are much plagued …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Surgeons [DAR *119: 1] Books to be Read 3 “Traité de la Folie des …
  • … on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 1836–47] Lawrence [W. …
  • … ou Traité de Tératologie, par I. Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire, 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, …
  • … of Human wishes. 28 Bacon’s Essays [Bacon 1825–36].— Butler. 3. first sermons …
  • … 1826]— (read) Pallas’ Travels [Pallas 1802–3]— Hookker (623 no) read Darby’s Louisiana …
  • … Drinkwater] 1833]— Prof. Smyth. French Revolution 3 vols [Smyth 1840] Baber’s …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). From the 3 rd edition on, each English …
  • … ( Origin 2d ed, p. 481).   2 nd to 3 rd editions; US edition …
  • … changes, was doomed to disappointment.   3 rd to 4 th editions …
  • … to include at least one change only previously made in the 3 rd German edition . I …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … topic for Darwin? And if so, why? 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to the subject of cross and self-fertilisation. On 3 October , he wrote with fresh enthusiasm to …
  • … other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It caused him much anxiety, …
  • … for printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the …
  • … weekly publications of Natural History’, he explained on 3 June , ‘are not sufficiently …
  • … time I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … selection , pp. 534--66) 3 16 December 1856 …
  • … 5 3 March 1857 The struggle for existence as bearing on …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Detecting Darwin

Summary

Who was Charles Darwin? What is he famous for? Why is he still important?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Pupils act as Darwin detectives, exploring clues about Darwin’s life and work. No prior knowledge …

Darwin And Evolution

Summary

What is evolution? What did Darwin discover and how did he come to his conclusions?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities give an introduction to Charles Darwin and his theories of evolution. Specimens brought …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] In this letter to the …
  • … Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873 In the 1870s, Darwin …

Home learning: 7-11 years

Summary

Do try this at home! Support your children’s learning by downloading our free and fun activities for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters.  

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and the Beagle  Voyage activities 3 Learn about Darwin the collector: …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 4 hits

  • … – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day archivist, …
  • … friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on …
  • … quite kindly, and told me… Hugh Falconer (Actor 3) – a Scottish paleobotanist and …
  • … and in a lesser degree ‘Blood’s One Penny Envelope, 1, 3, and 10 cents’. If you will make him this …

Teachers notes: Offer of a lifetime

Summary

The Offer of a Lifetime?  Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he received an exciting and unique opportunity to join HMS Beagle. The voyage changed his life but the letters show how close he came to not going at all! …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … a Lifetime?  Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 3 January 1865 ). Erasmus forwarded his …
  • … these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). Darwin, now …
  • … than anything else. I am able most days to work for 2 or 3 hours & this makes all the difference …
  • … the serenity of the Christian world’ (Brewster 1862, p. 3). John Hutton Balfour, though he had sent …
  • … of reform and reorganisation ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [3 November 1865] ). The death of …

Satire of FitzRoy's Narrative of the Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, by John Clunies Ross. Transcription by Katharine Anderson

Summary

[f.146r Title page] Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle Supplement / to the 2nd 3rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / Edition Written / for and in the name of the Author of those / Volumes By J.C. Ross. / Sometime Master of a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Adventure and Beagle Supplement / to the 2 nd 3 rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / …
  • … on the Cocos – &c &c – above mentioned. [ f.148r p.3 ] Seeing as I could not help …
  • … that I have said, or shewn to the contrary. In the 3 rd It is generally understood – that …
  • … get the few deep soundings which are given in the plan *[3] V. Until the 12 th …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of inheritance!” ( letter to F. S. B. F. de Chaumont, 3 February [1873] ). Some readers …
  • … civilisation and good breeding ( letter from Henry Reeks, 3 March 1873 ). Robert Swinhoe …
  • … some with his finger ( letter to  Nature , [before 3 April 1873] ). Moggridge suggested the …
  • … offend his father ( enclosure to letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 December 1873 ).  In April, …
  • … the passage of purgatory” ( letter from Andrew Clark, 3 September 1873 ). Revising …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 3 March 1872 ). I consider that you …
  • … because I do it badly’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 3 August [1872] ).  Darwin's …
  • … , and he complained to the German zoologist Anton Dohrn on 3 February that Mivart’s book had ' …
  • … Nature  in Wallace’s defence ( letter to  Nature  , 3 August [1872] ).  Although the two …
  • … more ‘ she observed ( letter from S. H. Haliburton, 3 November [1872] ). They reminisced about …
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